Tuesday, June 17, 2008

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Good governance

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The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Hereby, public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.
Good governance defines an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal. Major donors and international financial institutions, like the IMF or World Bank, are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken.
Good governance can be understood as a set of 8 major characteristics:
participation,
rule of law,
transparency,
responsiveness,
consensus orientation,
equity and inclusiveness,
effectiveness and efficiency
accountability.
These characteristics assure that
corruption is minimized,
the views of minorities are taken into account and
that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making
Participation
Participation by both men and women.
Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives.
Participation also means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially.
Full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities.
It also means independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations.
Information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement.
Responsiveness
Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus orientation
Need of mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved.
It also requires a long-term perspective for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development.
Equity and inclusiveness
Ensuring that all members of society feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream.
This requires all groups, and especially the most vulnerable to have opportunities to maintain or improve their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal.
It also means sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Governmental institutions as well as the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.
In general organizations and institutions are accountable to those who will be affected by decisions or actions.
A basic practical example of good governance would be where a member of a committee, with a vested interest in a topic being discussed at committee, would absent themselves from the discussion and not attempt to exert influence. See also Ethics in Public Office and Due Diligence.
WHAT IS GOOD GOVERNANCE?
Recently the terms "governance" and "good governance" are being increasingly used in development literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms that ensure "good governance" are undertaken.
This article tries to explain, as simply as possible, what "governance" and "good governance" means.
GOVERNANCE
The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put "governance" means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political parties, the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. Figure 1 provides the interconnections between actors involved in urban governance. At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc. may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process.
All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the "civil society." In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level.
Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as "kitchen cabinets" or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the "land Mafia" may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision-making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices.
Figure 1: Urban actors
GOOD GOVERNANCE
Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
Figure 2: Characteristics of good governance
Participation
Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.
Responsiveness
Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus oriented
There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.
Equity and inclusiveness
A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.
Good governance
What is good governance?
Governance is the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. read more>>
Good governance at the national level
There is a wealth of UN human rights standards of direct relevance and applicability to questions of good governance. read more>>
Good governance at the international level
In a globalizing world, national and international governance are inextricably linked. International institutions of governance will be in a better position to respond to the needs of the developing world once national institutions meet the test of good governance.read more>>
OHCHR and good governance
As mandated by the General Assembly, OHCHR is the UN’s system-wide focal point for human rights, democracy and the rule of law. Under the Secretary-General’s reform programme launched in 1997, OHCHR has also been charged with facilitating the mainstreaming of human rights in United Nations development programming. read more>>
Assistance for good governance
In 2000, policy measures, core elements and areas of programmatic collaboration for the United Nations system were established.

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