Monday, December 9, 2013

BEI MPYA ZA MASHINE ZA KUANGUA VIFARANGA

HABARI NJEMA KWA WAJASIRIAMALI
Kwa sasa tunatengeneza mashine za kuangua vifaranga zaukubwa mbalimbali kama ifuatavyo:
1. Mashine za mayai 90 = Tsh. 600,000/
2. Mashine za mayai 120 = Tsh 800,000/
3. Mashine za mayai 180 =Tsh. 1,500,000/
4. Mashine za mayai 300 =Tsh. 2,200,000/
5. Mashine za mayai 600 =Tsh. 2,800,000/
6. Mashine za mayai 1000 = Tsh. 3,500,000/
 Mashine zetu zina sifa nzuri sana za uanguaji mzuri wa mayai. Mnakaribishwa wote mfike mjionee zinavyofanya kazi. Sisi tupo Iringa mjini. Mnakaribishwa sana.








Friday, November 1, 2013

SHAMBANI KWETU LEO


Thursday, September 19, 2013

Angalia kuku wa kienyeji wa miezi miwili. Walianguliwa tarehe 21/7/2013

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

BEI YA MASHINE ZA KUANGUA VIFARANGA

Tunazo mashine za kuangua vifaranga za ukubwa mbalimbali kama ifuatavyo:
1. Mashine ya mayai 180 = Tsh. 1,500,000
2. Mashine ya mayai 300 =Tsh. 2,200,000
3. Mashine ya mayai 600 =Tsh 2,700,000
4. Mashine ya mayai 1000 = Tsh3,5000,000
5. Mashine ya mayai 1500 = Tsh. 4,300,000
KUMBUKA 
Mashine zetu zina sifa zifuatazo:
1. Joto lake huoneshwa kwa kidhibiti joto cha kidijitali
2. Mashine zetu hugeuza mayai zenyewe (automatic incubators)
3. Mashine zetu hazina usumbufu kabisa na spea zake ni nyepesi kupatikana
4. Mashine zetu zina ufanisi wa hadi aslimia tisini (90% efficiency)
5. Mashine zetu haziharibiki mara kwa mara
KARIBUNI WOTE
Sisi tupo Iringa mjini. Watu wengi wamedai mashine zao zina ufanisi mkubwa tofauti na ukweli. Ukitaka kununua mashine kwetu tunakushauri ututembelee kwanza ili uonane na watengenezaji lakini pia uonane na wale ambao wanazitumia ili wakupe ushahidi wa jinsi mashine hizi zinavyoweza kutotoa vifaranga kwa ufanisi mkubwa bila usumbufu.
Kwa mawasiliano:
0753903809 au 0655903809
Mnakaribishwa sana

Saturday, August 10, 2013

Tofauti za muonekano kati ya kuku mwenye afya na kuku mgonjwa

Kuku mwenye afya nzuri
Macho na sura angavu
Hupenda kula na kunywa maji
Pua zilizo safi, upanga na undu mwekundu, manyoya
laini na yaliyopangika vizuri
Hupumua kwa utulivu
Sehemu ya kutolea haja huwa kavu
Kinyesi kikavu, cheupe na kisicho na rangi
Hutaga mayai kawaida
Kuku asiye na afya nzuri (mgonjwa)
Huonekana mchovu na dhaifu
Hula na kunywa kidogo au zaidi ya kawaida
Hutoa kamasi puani, ute na matongotongo; manyoya
yaliyovurugika
Hupumua kwa shida na kwa sauti
Sehemu ya kutolea haja inakuwa na unyevunyevu na
kinyesi kuganda
Huharisha, kinyesi huwa na damu au minyoo
Hutaga mayai machache au husimama kutaga kabisa
Huwa na tabia ya kujitenga na wenzake katika kundi

Mdondo/Kideri (Newcastle Disease)
Maelezo
Ni ugonjwa unaosababishwa na virusi ambao hushambulia aina zote za spishi za ndege, ijapokuwa kuku ndio aina
inayoathirika zaidi. Binadamu na wanyama wengine pia wanaweza kuambukizwa. Ugonjwa huathiri mifumo ya
fahamu, njia ya chakula na hewa.
Jinsi Ugonjwa Unavyoenea
• Chanzo cha maambukizi ni maji, chakula kilichochafuliwa na kinyesi cha kuku wagonjwa. Pia maambukuzi
huweza kupitia mfumo wa hewa kutoka kwa kuku wagonjwa.
• Kuku, vifaa vya kazi na bidhaa zitokanazo na kuku (nyama, mayai, manyoya na mbolea) kutoka mashamba
yenye ugonjwa zinaweza kueneza ugonjwa kutoka shamba moja hadi jingine.
• Vifaranga wanaweza kupata maambukizi kutoka vituo vya kutotolea vifaranga kutokana na maganda ya
mayai yaliyochafuliwa.
Dalili
• Vifo vya ghafla vya idadi kubwa ya kuku katika shamba/banda
• Kuku wanatetemeka na kushindwa kutembea
• Kuku hupooza miguu, mabawa na kupinda shingo; na hujizungusha mahali alipo
• Kuku huharisha kinyesi cha kijani na wakati mwingine chenye mchanganyiko wa rangi ya njano
• Kuku huzubaa na kuacha kula
• Kuku hukohoa, hupiga chafya na kupumua kwa shida
• Vifo vinaweza kufikia asilimia 100, kutegemea na umri na aina ya ndege
Uchunguzi wa Mzoga
Ugonjwa huathiri zaidi mfumo wa hewa na njia ya chakula, hivyo mabadiliko yanayoonekana kwenye mzoga ni
pamoja na:
• Madoa ya damu kwenye mfumo wa hewa
• Kamasi nzito zenye rangi ya njano kwenye koromeo
• Utandu mweupe kwenye mifuko ya hewa
• Bandama kuvimba
• Uvimbe kwenye kichwa na eneo la shingo
• Madoa madogo madogo ya damu kwenye kifua, mafuta na utandu wa tumboni
• Damu kuvia kwenye mfumo wa usagaji chakula - juju, firigisi, tumbo na utumbo
Tiba
• Hakuna tiba ya ugonjwa huu ila kuku wapewe antibiotiki.
• Pata ushauri wa daktari.
Kuzuia na Kinga
• Weka utaratibu wa kuhakikisha wafanyakazi , wageni na ndege hawaingii hovyo kwenye shamba/banda
• Angamiza mizoga yote kwa njia stahiki kwa kuchoma moto au kufukia kwenye shimo refu ardhini.
• Hakikisha banda la kuku lina hewa ya kutosha na epuka msongamano mkubwa wa kuku.
• Fanya usafi wa mara kwa mara kwenye vyombo vya kuwekea maji na chakula, pamoja na mabanda ya
kuku.
• Zuia uingizaji holela wa kuku wageni wasiochanjwa kwenye shamba/banda. Kuku wanaoingia shambani/
bandani watoke maeneo yasiyokuwa na ugonjwa.
• Tenganisha kuku kufuatana na umri
• Maeneo yenye ugonjwa yawekwe chini ya karantini na mabanda yapulizwe dawa
• Kuku wapewe Chanjo tangu vifaranga wa umri wa siku 3, baada ya wiki 3 – 4, na baadaye kila baada ya
miezi 3.

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Hatua za Tahadhari za Kuzuia Kuingia na Kuenea kwa Magonjwa Shambani


1. Tenganisha ndege kufuatana na aina ya ndege na umri wao
2. Weka karantini kwa ndege/kuku wapya ili wachunguzwe kwa kipindi kisichopungua wiki mbili
kabla ya kuingizwa shambani au bandani.
3. Usiruhusu tabia ya kuchangia vifaa/vyombo kama vile makasha ya mayai, makreti ya kubebea kuku
kati ya shamba na shamba, n.k.
4. Wafanyakazi waanze kuwahudumia kuku wenye umri mdogo kabla ya wale wenye umri mkubwa.
5. Usiruhusu watoto kucheza na kuku.
6. Jaribu kuzuia idadi ya wageni wanaoingia shambani/bandani.
7. Weka utaratibu wa kuangamiza mizoga ya kuku.
8. Anzisha programu jumuishi ya kudhibiti wadudu/wanyama waharibifu.
9. Panga utaratibu mzuri wa kuwapa kuku huduma ya maji na kufanya usafi.
10. Panga utaratibu mzuri wa kuzoa taka na mizoga ya kuku.
11. Panga utaratibu mzuri wa kusafisha banda na kupulizia dawa.
12. Vifaa visafishwe na kuwekwa dawa ya kuua vijidudu kabla ya kuingizwa shambani.
13. Hakikisha magari yanapoingia shambani yanapita katika kidimbwi chenye dawa ya kuua vimelea
vya magonjwa.
14. Hakikisha mfanyakazi anabadilisha viatu/mabuti kabla ya kuingia katika kila banda
15. Weka taratibu nzuri za kuingia shambani, ikiwa ni pamoja na kuhakikisha usafi wa viatu na mikono;
au wageni na wafanyakazi kubadilisha nguo/viatu na kuvaa mabuti.

Wednesday, June 26, 2013

KARIBUNI TUSHIRIKIANE KUUONDA UMASKINI KWA KUBUNI MIRADI ISIYOHITAJI MITAJI MIKUBWA

MRADI WA KUFUGA KUKU WA KIENYEJI
Katika maisha kila mtu hutamani sana kufikia mafanikio makubwa kwa kadri anavyoweza.
Kutamani kufikia mafanikio ni hulka ya mwanadamu. Sisi Watanzania tunazo fursa nyingi sana ambazo tukizichangamkia tunaweza kufanikiwa sana na kujivunia Utanzania wetu.
Pamoja na kuwa na fursa za kujiajiri, Watanzania wengi hawana wazo la kujiajiri kama walivyo majirani zetu kama Kenya.
Kwetu sisi Watanzania uwanja ya ajira binafsi ni bado ngeni sana. Bado namba ya watu kwa mfano wanaomaliza chuo na kuwa na wazo la kujiajiri ni ndogo sana hapa Tanzania.
Hii inatokana na mfumo wa elimu tunayopata hapa kwetu. Elimu tunayoipata haimuandai mtu kuwa mbunifu vya kutosha na kuwenza kuwa na mawazo ya kuchagua ajira binafsi dhidi ya ile ya kufanya kazi serikalini au mashirika ya watu wengine.
Muda umefika kwetu sisi watanzania wa kuchagua ajira binafsi. Tukiingia huko faida ni kubwa sana maana uzalishaji utaongezeka.
Mimi binafsi nimeamua kujikita kwenye biashara ya kufuga kuku baada ya kuacha kazi serikalini. Nimeacha kazi baada ya kuona sipati muda wa kufanya kile ambacho nafikiri kingeweza kuniondoa kwenye dimbwi la umaskini. Huko nilikofanyia kazi nilikutana na watu wapo kazini zaidi ya miaka 30 lakini hawakukoma kulalamika kwamba kazi wanayofanya haikuwafikisha pale walipotegemea kufika walipoanza kazi. Nilipoona hata mimi naanza kulalamika nikaondoka haraka sana maana nilijishtukia kwamba si muda mrefu ningeungana na walalamikaji.
MJIUNGE NAMI TUFUGE
Kwa wale wanaotaka kufuga, mnaweza kununua mashine za kuangulia vifaranga kutoka kwetu na tunawenza kuwasiliana kwa namba 0753903809 au 0655903809.
Mashine zenu ni nzuri na zenye ufanisi mkubwa sana na zina guarantee. Mashine zetu ni automatic kwa maana kuwa zinasoma joto kwa digital display na hizi display ni very sensitive to temperature changes.
Mashine zetu zinageuza mayai zenyewe. Zinageuza mayai kila saa kwa maana kuwa zinageuza mayai mara 24 kwa siku na hivyo kuongeza utotolekaji wa mayai. Effficiency (ufanisi) yake ni mpaka 90% na hii ina ushahidi maana tunakuruhusu kuwatembelea wafugaji ambao tayari wana mashine zilizonunuliwa kwetu.
KARIBUNI SANA. SISI TUNAPATIKA IRINGA MANISPAA

Friday, April 19, 2013

Indigenous Chicken Farming

Introduction
Indigenous chicken farming has been described variously as backyard poultry
rearing, rural poultry production or scavenging. For our purpose, any flock of
chicken that are kept under free-range management and on which no selection of
breeds or improvement by crossbreeding has been done is considered as a flock of
indigenous chicken. Indigenous chicken lay between 8 and 15 eggs per clutch
depending on availability of feed. They are broody and hatch about 80% of the
eggs they sit on. They attain 2-3 clutches in a year.
The few chicks that attain 20-30% maturity form most of the replacement stock.
These birds, though under poor management, live within the families for many
years. They form an important part of family life playing important cultural roles
besides being a valuable source of protein and income.
Indigenous chicken have not attained their full production potential due to exposure
to risks that militate against their survival and productivity. Constraints to
production include diseases, predators and poor nutrition. Indigenous chicken can
be profitable if managed well. Control of common diseases in the free-range system
could improve survival rate of chicks by at least 30% while improved feeding,
housing and disease control could increase survival rate to 80%.
Families could improve their income and supply of poultry products (meat and
eggs) by practising a combination of recommendations given in this manual. The
aim of this manual is to create awareness and interest in indigenous chicken
production. The reader is encouraged to consult the Ministry of Livestock and
Fisheries Development and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) for
further information.
General management
Feeding
Birds need feeds that give the necessary elements for body functions, including
growth, and egg and meat production. This is a requirement that the free-range
production system does not meet adequately. To attain a balanced diet, it is
recommended that in addition to scavenging, a farmer should include protein
supplements from one of the recommended cheap but quality sources. This can be
provided either as a pre-mix or given through cafeteria system.
Animals need carbohydrates for supply of energy and heat. In addition to kitchen
waste, birds should be given feed rich in energy such as maize, millet, cassava,
sweetpotatoes and sorghum.
Proteins
Proteins are body building blocks that are essential for growth and production.
Feed birds on protein-rich non-conventional feed such as yeast, ‘Busaa’ waste (dregs
[Machicha]), sunflower cake, heat-treated soya or ordinary beans, lucerne, peas,
2
Indigenous chicken production manual
lupins, fishmeal (Omena), dried blood, rumen content, earthworms and termites.
Termites are trapped by slightly watering leafy waste such as maize stover and
rubbish collected from the compound and leaving them outside for 2 or 3 days.
Minerals
Minerals are trace elements found in plant seeds and grate. Minerals such as calcium
that are important for bone and egg shell formation are found in fishmeal.
Vitamins
Vitamins are necessary for growth and reproduction. The rich, yellow pigment in
the skin and egg yolk of indigenous chicken indicates presence of carotenoids from
fresh vegetation such as grass and vegetables, the precursors of vitamin A.
Water
Water is often not provided because farmers assume that the birds find it around
the homestead. Birds drink water from ponds and open tins during the rains but it
is better to give them clean and fresh water all the time at a specific place . It
is easy to medicate birds that drink from a central place.
Housing
Protective housing should be used in free-range poultry farming system to protect
chicks from predators and bad weather. Several housing structures including the
dome-shaped stick basket popular in western Kenya variably known as Lisera, Liuli
or Osero  which is ideal for daytime housing are found. Other alternatives
include the stick-built Kiduli and standard poultry houses . A good housing
structure should be spacious, well lit, airy and dry, easy to clean, have perches for
chicken to roost and protected from predators.
Cleaning and disinfecting
A chicken house should be decontaminated using fumes (fumigation) produced
from chemicals such potassium permanganate and formaline to kill germs. The
house must be tightly sealed so that the fumes remain in circulation for 18-24 h.
These conditions are not possible for indigenous poultry houses. Contamination
should be avoided by restricting entry into the house, quarantining all new chicken
by separating them from the flock,
keeping the house clean and wiping all surfaces with one part of jik in 3 parts of
water. Keep non-concrete floors smooth by smearing regularly with cow dung and
dusting with pesticides such as Sevin or Actelic to keep away vermin.

Friday, April 12, 2013

UTARATIBU WA KUZUIA MAGONJWA




Magonjwa ndio husababisha hasara katika mfumo wa ufugaji wa kuku. Kuku waliochanjwa dhidi ya magonjwa hudumisha afya bora. Jaribu kila mara kuzuia magonjwa, kwani kuzuia ni bora kuliko kuponya. Kinga yaweza kutolewa mara kwa mara (kila baada ya miezi mitatu) dhidi ya magonjwa yafuatayo:
Ugonjwa wa Newcastle
Ugonjwa huu ndio huadhiri kuku na kusababisha hasara katika nchi za hari. Virusi vya ugonjwa huu huenea kwa kasi na rahisi kiasi cha kusababisha vifo kwa asilimia 100%. Dalili za kwanza ni shida ya kupumua na kung'amua hewa, sauti kama ya kikohozi na kutokwa mate. Kinyesi chaweza kuwa na rangi ya kijani kibichi. Hadi sasa hakuna dawa.
Waweza kuzuia ugonjwa huu kwa kutoa chanjo. Dawa za chanjo hupatikana kote ulimwenguni hata katika nchi za hari kwenye vipimo vya vitone mia moja. Madawa haya yaweza kuhifadhiwa kwa muda.17 Waweza kuweka kwa wiki moja mbali na jua au joto kali (Chanjo hii ni ya kipekee, kwani aina nyingine ya chanjo huwekwa kwa friji). Waweza kupeana chanjo kwa kutia vitone kwenye mdomo. Kuku wote (wakubwa kwa wadogo) wapaswa kupewa chanjo baada ya kila miezi mitatu.
Minyoo
Minyoo kama chango (roundworms) na tegu (tapeworms) huadhiri kuku wa kienyeji. Kuku hukosahamu ya chakula, mayai hupungua na magonjwa mengine hushambulia. Ni bora basi kutoa minyoo.
Mchanganyiko wa madawa ya aina tatu ndio hutumiwa kuangamiza minyoo, madawa haya ni piperazine, phenothiazine na butynorate. Madawa haya hupatikana kama vidonge (tumia kidonge 1 kwa kuku mzima na 1/2 kwa vifaranga). Iwapo hautapata dawa hii, waweza kutumia Panacur au dawa nyingine ya kuangamiza minyoo. Wapatie kuku dawa ya minyoo kila baada ya miezi mitatu.
Wadudu
Wadudu kama chawa au utitiri husumbua kuku katika ufugaji wa kienyeji. Chawa au utitiri husababisha harara ya ngozi, kuku walio adhiriwa hupata shida na kukosa usingizi. Hali hii hupunguza kiwango cha mayai na uzito wa kuku.
Tumia asilimia 5% ya unga wa malathion kwa kupulizia kuku (puliza kwa chupa uliyo toboa mashimo) pulizia kila kuku ili kuzuia chawa na utitiri (kilo moja ya unga huu yaweza kutibu kuku (150). Pulizia dawa hii baada ya kila miezi mitatu, waweza kupuliza kwa wakati mmoja wa kutoa chanjo na dawa zilizotajwa hapo juu. Puliza unga huu pia kwenye viota vya kuangulia mayai.
Waweza kutayarisha 5% ya malathion kwa kuchanganya 25% ya unga wa malathion (kiwango cha kilimo) na sehemu nne za jivu kutoka jikoni.
Magonjwa ya mapafu
Magonjwa ya mapafu huadhiri njia inayopitisha hewa18 na kuambatanisha mate na sauti kama ya kikohozi. Ugonjwa huu huenea polepole. Uambukizanaji pia hutokea kwa polepole na vifo sio kwa wingi. Hata hivyo, kutaga mayai na uzito hupungua. Shida hii yaweza kusambaa hata kutoka mahali vifaranga huanguliwa hadi pale walipouzwa.
Tylosin19 ndio dawa inayoweza kutibu magonjwa ya mapafu. Kiasi cha 35mg ya tylosin hutosha kuku mmoja (kiwango hiki hufaa kuku na hata vifaranga) dawa hii husimamisha madhara kutokana na magonjwa ya mapafu. Tibu kuku kila baada ya miezi mitatu, waweza kutekeleza kwa wakati mmoja wa kutoa kinga na kuangamiza minyoo. Tylosin hupatikana kwa pakiti ndogo ya 4gm.
Waweza kutayarisha dawa hii kwa kutumia maji na 35gm ya tylosin (gramu nne kwa vikombe viwili vya maji), kiasi hiki chaweza kutolewa kwa vitone kwa kila kuku.
Utaratibu wa kuzuia magonjwa
Utaratibu uliotajwa hapo juu hupunguza vifo vya kuku. Aidha mayai na afya ya kuku huimarishwa licha ya kutumia pesa kidogo kugharamia matibabu na kinga.
Fahamu kwamba utaratibu wowote hautaangamiza magonjwa yote. Mpangilio wa hapo juu ni kusaidia kukabili magonjwa na shida nne zilizotajwa. Kwa kuzingatia utaratibu huu utasaidia sana

Friday, March 29, 2013

Mwongozo kwa wafugaji wa kuku wa kienyeji




Pengine umekuwa ukiwaza sana nini ufanye ili uweze kufanikiwa na kuondokana na adha za umaskini. Yako mambo mengi ya kufanya mimi nataka kukufungua macho kwa jambo moja tu tena kwa uchache. Jambo hili anaweza kulifanya mwenye mtaji mkubwa au mdogo.Viko vitabu vingi na tena siku hizi zinatolewa DVD za jinsi ya kufanikiwa katika maisha. Utashangaa mpaka unamaliza kusoma au kutazama DVD hizo hujapata njia ya wazi sana sana utajilaumu tu kwa kuendelea kupoteza fedha kwa kuchangia miradi ya wajanja hao. Wengine wanakuambia "amini tu kuwa wewe ni tajiri na utafanikiwa" mh! INAWEZEKANA? Afadhali hao, balaa zaidi ni wale ambao wanayanadi mafanikikio na utajiri kwa mizizi, hirizi na hata roho za binadamu wenzao!

Somo langu ni dogo lakini naamini wapo watakaopata mafanikio makubwa sana. Sasas kuwa makini zaidi. Unaweza kuanza kwa mtaji wa Mil.1 mpaka laki tano au hata chini ya hapo. Mfano. Unaweza kutumia Tsh 250,000 kununua kuku 25 kwa bei ya Tsh 10,000 kwa kuku mmoja (kadirio la juu) Majogoo watakuwa 5 kwa uwiano wa 1:4 . Hii ina maana kuwa wakishaanza kutaga utakuwa na vifaranga 20 x 10 = 200 Watunze vizuri. Wale vifaranga tunakadiria kuwa makoo(majike) watakuwa 150 ambao ndani ya miezi 3 au zaidi nao wataanza kutaga. Utakuwa na kuku 200 + 25 =225 ndani ya miezi 6. Miezi 6 inayofuata 225 - (majogoo 55) = 170 Hii ina maana kuwa 170 x 10= 1,700. Ndugu mwanajamvi hayo niliyotoa ni makadirio ya chini sana hivyo mpaka mwisho wa mwaka utakuwa na kuku zaidi ya 2000. Mwaka utakaofuata utakuwa na kuku wangapi baada ya kuuza kuku 1,000. Mwaka 2. 750(majike) x 10 = 7500 (uza wengine) 3000 x 10 = 30,000. Kutegemea na uwezo wako mpaka mwisho wa mwaka wa pili utakuwa umefanikiwa sana. Kumbuka huu ni mwongozo tu, fanya utafiti na ufuatilie zaidi huku ukiacha kando uzushi wa vitabu vya wasanii na DVD zao pia. NB. Kumbuka kuku ninao wazungumzia hapa ni wale wa kawaida sio wale mataahira (wa kisasa).Fuatilia zaidi kuhusu matibabu na matunzo mengineyo.



MAELEZO ZAIDI
UFUGAJI BORA WA KUKU WA KIENYEJI



SEHEMU YA KWANZA

UTANGULIZI

Napenda kumshukuru mwenyezi Mungu ambaye ameniwezesha kwa namna moja au nyingine kutoa mchango wangu kwa mtindo huu. Huu ni kama mwongozo tu wa nini utakabiliana nacho au unatakiwa kufanya katika zoezi zima la ufugaji wa kuku wa kienyeji. Nimeamua kuuleta kwenu wana JF ili kwa mtu mwenye malengo ya kufanikiwa kupitia ufugaji wa kuku ajue mlolongo mzima na changamoto ambazo atakabiliana nazo.

A.KWA NINI KUKU WA KIENYEJI?

1. Wastahimilivu wa magonjwa lakini ni muhimu wakikingwa na magonjwa ya kuku kama mdonde, ndui ya kuku n.k ili kuweza kuwaendeleza.
2. Wana uwezo wa kujitafutia chakula ardhini.
3. Wana uwezo wa kuatamia mayai, kutotoa na kulea vifaranga na ustahimilivu wa mazingira magumu kama ukame, baridi n.k
4.Nyama na mayai yake vina ladha nzuri kuliko kuku wa kisasa.(PATA SUPU YA KUKU WA KIENYEJI ILI UTHIBITISHE)
5. Wana uwezo wa kujilinda na maadui kama mwewe n.k . Pamoja na sifa hizi ni muhimu muhimu kuku hao wakapewa matunzo mazuri, wakawekwa kwenye mabanda mazuri, wakapewa maji na chakula cha kutosha.

B.FAIDA ZA KUKU WA KIENYEJI.

Faida ni nyingi na zinafahamika lakini nitaeleza zile ambazo kwa wengine huenda zikawa ni ngeni kwao.
- Mayai huweza kutumika kwa tiba. (Pata maelezo jinsi yai la kuku wa kienyeji linavyoweza kutumika kwa tiba kutoka kwa wataalam wa tiba mbadala)
- Kiini cha njano cha yai kinaweza kutumika kutengenezea mafuta ya nywele (shampoo)
- Manyoya yake yanaweza kutumika kama mapambo.
Fuga kuku upate faida kwa kuzingatia:
Chanjo ya mdondo kila baada ya miezi mitatu na chanjo ya ndui mara mbili kwa mwaka
Zuia viroboto, utitiri na minyoo.
Chagua mayai bora kwa ajili ya kuatamiza
Panga kuuza kuku kwa makundi uongeze kipato
Kula mayai na kuku kadri uzalishaji unavyoongezeka.
Kipato unachokipata utenge pia na kiasi kwa ajili ya uendelezaji wa kuku

C:MAPUNGUFU

Yako mapungufu mengi yanayofahamika lakini hapa naomba niweke lile la muhimu zaidi. MAGONJWA kama mdondo na ndui huathiri ufugaji wa kuku kutokana na kutokuzingatia kuchanja kuku kwa wakati.


D: KABILA ZA KUKU WA KIENYEJI

Kuna maelezo ya kusisimua sana kuhusu makabila ya kuku wa kienyeji, hata hivyo kuna ugumu kidogo kuweza kuyachanganua makabila hayo kutokana na muingiliano mkubwa wa vizazi kati ya aina mbalimbali za kuku hao. Hata hivyo kuku hawa wana tofauti za kimaumbile zinazosaidia kwa kiasi fulani kutambua uwepo wa baadhi ya makabila ya kuku. Kabila hizi pia zinahusishwa kwa kiasi kikubwa na eneo kuku wanakotoka. Baadhi ya kuku wa kienyeji wanaweza kutambuliwa kwa maumbile yao Mfano:
a. Kishingo - kuku wasio na manyoya shingoni
b. Njachama au Nungunungu - Hawa ni wale wenye manyoya yaliyosimama.
c. Kibwenzi - Ni wale wenye manyoya mengi kichwani.
d. Kibutu- Hawa hawana manyoya mkiani
Mwingiliano wa vizazi unaweza ukasababisha kuku kuwa na aina ya maumbile mchanganyiko. Mfano kuku aina ya kuchi anaweza kuwa na alama ya kishingo, Njachama, Kibwenzi au Kibutu.
Hivyo kabila za kuku zifuatazo zinaweza kutambuliwa kama ndiyo kabila za kuku wa kienyeji kulingana na maumbile yao na maeneo wanakotoka.

(i) KUCHI

Ni kuku warefu kwa umbo na wenye kusimama mgongo ukiwa wima. Wana manyoya machache mwilinini na hasa kifuani, vilemba vyao ni vidogo. Majogoo huwa na wastani wa uzito wa Kg. 2.5 na mitetea kg 1.5 mayai ya kuchi yana uzito wa wastani wa gm 45. Kuku hawa hupatikana kwa wingi maeneo ya Mwanza, Shinyanga, Tabora na Zanzibar.

(ii) CHING'WEKWE

Kuku hawa ambao jina lao ni gumu kidogo kwa mtu asiyekuwa na meno kulitamka wana sifa zifuatazo.
Majogoo wana wastani wa kg 1.6, Mitetea wastani kg 1.2, mayai wastani wa gm 37. Kuku hawa wenye umbo dogo hupatikana zaidi maeneo ya CHAKWALE mkoani Morogoro na pia sehemu za umasaini. Kuku hawa hutaga mayai mengi sana kuliko aina nyingine ya kuku wa kienyeji waliopo Tanzania, kwa hiyo wanafaa sana kwa biashara ya mayai.

(iii)UMBO LA KATI

Majogoo wana uzito wa wastani wa kg. 1.9, Mitetea kg. 1.1, Kuku hawa ndio hasa wanaoitwa wa kienyeji(wa kawaida) Wana rangi tofauti. Utafiti umeonyesha kuwa kuku hawa hukua upesi na hupata kinga upesi baada ya kuwachanja dhidi ya ugonjwa wa mdondo (Castle desease)
Muhimu - Mfugaji akifanya uchaguzi kutoka kwenye aina hii ya kuku na kutoa matunzo mazuri kwa hao kuku waliochaguliwa, Hakika anaweza kupata kuku walio bora na wenye uzito wa kutosha pia kutaga mayai mengi na makubwa.

(iv) SINGAMAGAZI

Ni aina ya kuku wakubwa wa kienyeji wanaopatikana zaidi TABORA, kuku hawa wana utambulisho maalum kutokana na rangi zao. Majogoo huwa na rangi ya moto na mitetea huwa na rangi ya nyuki. Uzito - Majogoo uzito wa wastani wa kg 2.9, mitetea wastani wa kilo 2 mayai gramu 56.

(iiv) MBEYA

Kuku hawa wanapatikana Ileje mkoani mbeya. Asili hasa ya kuku hawa ni kutoka nchi ya jirani ya Malawi na si wa kienyeji asilia bali wana damu ya kuku wa Kizungu "Black Australop". Majogoo Kg 3 mitetea kg 2 mayai gram 49

(iiiv)PEMBA

Hupatikana zaidi Pemba. Majogoo Kg.1.5 Mitetea Kg 1 mayai wastani gm 42

(xi) UNGUJA.

Majogoo Kg 1.6,mitetea kg 1.2 mayai gm 42. Kuku hawa wa Unguja na Pemba wanashabihiana sana na Kuchi isipokuwa hawa ni wadogo.


SEHEMU YA PILI

1. MIFUMO YA UFUGAJI WA KUKU WA KIENYEJI.

A. MFUMO HURIA
Katika mfumo huu kuku huachiwa wakitembea toka asubuhi wakijitafutia chakula na maji na kufungiwa kwenye vibanda visivyo rasmi wakati wa usiku. Huu ni mfumo rahisi lakini si nzuri kwa mfugaji wa kuku wengi kwani atahitaji eneo kubwa la ardhi.

FAIDA.
Mfumo huu una faida za gharama ndogo za uendeshaji kiujumla.

HASARA
Uwezekano mkubwa wa kuku kuliwa na vicheche, kuibiwa mitaani n.k
Kuku huweza kutaga popote na kusababisha upotevu mkubwa wa mayai.
Ni rahisi kuku kuambukizwa magonjwa
Utagaji unakuwa si nzuri kulingana na mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa.
Uwekaji kumbukumbu si nzuri.
Ni vigumu kugundua kuku wagonjwa hivyo kusababisha ugumu katika utoaji wa tiba.

UTUMIAJI NZURI WA MFUMO HUU
Kuku wajengewe banda kwa ajili ya kulala nyakati za usiku na liwasaidie wakati mwingine wowote hali ya hewa inapokuwa si nzuri.
Kuku wapatiwe chakula cha ziada na maji.
Kuku waandaliwe kwa viota vya kutagia.
Kuku 100 ni vizuri wakitumia eneo la ardhi la ekari 1.


B.MFUMO NUSU HURIA
Huu ni mfumo ambao kuku hujengewa banda rasmi na banda hilo huzungushiwa uzio/ wigo. Mfumo huu ni ghari kiasi ukilinganisha na mfumo huria lakini huweza kumpatia mfugaji faida haraka sana.

FAIDA
Sehemu ndogo ya kufugia hutumika kuliko ufugaji huria, utunzaji wa kuku ni rahisi ukilinganisha na mfumo huria, Ni rahisi kutibu magonjwa ya mlipuka kama mdondo (Newcastle desease), Upotevu wa kuku na mayai ni mdogo sana ukilinganisha na mfumo huria.


C. MFUMO WA NDANI
Kuku hujengewa banda rasmi na hufugwa wakiwa ndani. Mfumo huu kuku huwekwa kwenye mabanda ambayo sakafu hufunikwa kwa matandiko ya makapi ya mpunga, takataka za mbao(randa), maganda ya karanga au majani makavu yaliyokatwa katwa.

FAIDA
Mfumo huu unahitaji eneo dogo la kufugia, uangalizi mzuri na rahisi wa kuku, Joto litokanalo na matandiko lina uwezo wa kuua vimelea vya maradhi, kuku wanakingwa na hali ya hewa mbaya na maadui wengine.

HASARA
Uwezekano wa kuku kudonoana ni mkubw na pia Gharama za ujenzi wa mabanda

UTUMIAJI MZURI WA MFUMO HUU.
1. Matandiko yageuzwe kila siku
2. Kila mara matandiko yawe makavu kwa kuwa na madirisha yanayopitisha hewa ya kutosha, ambayo yatatoa unyevunyevu hewa chafu ikiwemo ammonia.
4. Mita mraba moja hutosha kuku 5 hadi 8.



UTATUZI WA KUKABILIANA NA VIKWAZO KATIKA UFUGAJI.
Mambo ya kuzingatia:

Mabanda bora - Fuatilia kwa wataalamu wa mifugo walio karibu nawe.
Sifa za banda bora (Waone wataalam wa mifugo)
Kuchagua kuku wa kuendeleza kizazi
Kuwa makini na aina ya mitetea na majogoo unatakiwa kuchagua ili kuwa na kizazi bora.


UTAGAJI WA MAYAI
Kwa kawaida kuku huanza kutetea(Kutoa mlio wa ishara ya kutaga) anapofikisha miezi sita hadi minane. Hivyo ni vyema viota viandaliwe mapema wakiwa na umri wa miezi mitano. Kuku anapoanza kutaga akifikisha mayai matatu mfugaji anashauriwa kuondoa kila yai linalozidi hayo matatu kila siku linapotagwa na kuliweka alama ya tarehe au namba kwa kutumia penseli ili kumfanya kuku aendelee kutaga kwa lengo la kufikisha mayai 15 mpaka 20. Mayai yanayoondolewa yawekwe kwenye chombo kikavu kinachopitisha hewa ni vizuri pia kuweka mchanga ndani ya chombo hicho.

Hakikisha ya fuatayo.
Sehemu iliyochongoka iwe chini na pana iwe juu.
Hifadhi sehemu yenye hewa ya kutosha na isiyohifadhi joto
Mayai yasikae kwenye hifadhi hiyo zaidi ya wiki mbili toka siku ya kuanza kutagwa.

UATAMIAJI WA MAYAI NA UANGUAJI WA VIFARANGA
Uatamiaji na uanguaji wa kubuni - Mfumo huu hutumia mashine za kutotoleshea vifaranga (Incubators) hutumika kuangua mayai mengi kati ya 50 hadi 500 kwa wakati mmoja Mashine zinazotumika kutotoleshea vifaranga wa kisasa zinaweza kutumika pia kutotoleshea wa kienyeji.
Uatamiaji na uanguaji wa asili

KUCHAGUA MAYAI YA KUANGUA.
Hili nalo ni muhimu kuzingatia. Ni vizuri kuchagua mayai ya kuatamia ili mayai yasiyofaa yaweze kuuzwa au kutumiwa nyumbani kwa chakula. Mayai ya kuatamia yawe na sifa zifuatazo
Yasiwe na uchafu yawe masafi
Yasiwe na nyufa
Yatokane na kuku aliyepandwa na jogoo
Yasiwe madogo wala makubwa bali yawe na ukubwa wa wastani kulingana na umbile la kuku.
Yasiwe mviringo kama mpira pia yasiwe na ncha kali sana.
Yasiwe yamekaa muda mrefu zaidi ya wiki mbili toka yalipotagwa
Yasiwe yaliyohifadhiwa kwenye sehemu yenye joto.

KUMTAYARISHA KUKU WA KUATAMIA
Pamoja na matayarisho hayo zingatia kumuwekea mayai yasiyozidi 15 pia ni vizuri yasipungue 12. Kuku wanaotazamiwa kuatamia ni lazima wachunguzwe kwa makini kabla ya kuatamia ili kuhakikisha kwamba hawana chawa, utitiri n.k. Kuwepo kwa wadudu hao huwafanya kuku wakose raha na kutotulia kwenye viota vyao. Hali hii husababisha kuanguliwa kwa Vifaranga wachache.
Sasa unatakiwa kufanya yafuatayo:-
Nyunyiza dawa ya kuua wadudu ndani ya kiota
Pia mnyunyuzie dawa kuku anayetarajia kuatamia
Weka mayai kwenye kiota huku mikono yako ikiwa imepakwa jivu ili kuepuka kuwa na harufu kwani kuku anaweza kuyasusa.

Ni vizuri kuifanya kazi hii ya kumuandaa kuku anayetaka kuatamia wakati wa usiku. Pia ifahamike kuwa kwa kawaida kuku huatamia mayai yake siku 21.

PIA JIFUNZE MBINU ZA KUATAMIA MAYAI MENGI KWA NJIA ZA ASILI
Iwapo una kuku wengi wanaotaga kwa wakati mmoja ni vema ukawafanya wakaatamia na kutotoa pamoja.
Unachotakiwa kufanya ni kuchagua mayai ya kuatamia ukianzia na yai la mwisho kutaga.
Unaweza kuwaandaa kuku wako zaidi ya mmoja ili waanze kuatamia kwa pamoja na kupata vifaranga vingi kwa mara moja kuku wa kwanza anapoanza kuatamia. Mwekee mayai viza au ya kuku wa kisasa kwani kuku huatamia hadi mayai yanapoanguliwa hivyo ukimuwekea mayai yasiyo na mbegu atakaa hapo muda mrefu hadi vifaranga watoke.

UTEKELEZAJI WAKE
Kuku anapotaga kila siku weka alama ya namba au tarehe kulinganisha na siku anayotaga
Yanapofika mayai matatu yaondoe na muwekee mayai viza au ya kisasa huku ukiendelea kuweka alama mayai yanayotagwa kila siku.
Mara kuku anapoanza kuatamia muongezee mayai ya uongo yafikie 8 hadi 10
Fanya hivyo kwa kila kuku anayetaga hadi utakapoweza kupata idadi itakayoweza kukupatia vifaranga wengi kwa wakati mmoja.
Wawekee kuku wote mayai siku moja kwa kuondoa mayai ya uongo na kuwawekea mayai ya ukweli wakati wa usiku.

MUHIMU
Mayai ya kuatamia yasishikwe kwa mkono ulio wazi na wala yasipate harufu za mafuta ya taa, manukato n.k.

JIFUNZE PIA KUTAMBUA MAYAI YALIYO NA MBEGU NA YALE YASUYO NA MBEGU.
Mfugaji anaweza kutambua mayai yaliyo na mbegu na yale yasiyo na mbegu siku ya saba baada ya kuanza kuatamia iwapo atapima mayai kwa kutumia box lililotengenezwa maalum pamoja na tochi yenye mwanga mkali ndani ya chumba chenye kiza. Hii itamuwezesha mfugaji ayatumie mayai yasiyo na mbegu kwa chakula cha familia au kuyauza.

TAMBUA VYAKULA NA UZALISHAJI WA KUKU - Sitalielezea hili naomba ufuatilie mwenyewe.

JIFUNZE MBINU ZA KUZALISHA KUKU WENGI KWA MUDA MFUPI
Zoezi hili linawezekana iwapo uleaji wa vifaranga kwa njia ya kubuni utatumika. Kuku mmoja anaweza kutotoa zaidi ya mara saba kwa mwaka.
Taz.
Hesabu ya uzalishaji wa kuku wengi kwa mwaka kwa kutumia mtetea mmoja tu.
Mpaka mwisho wa mwaka unaweza kuwa na idadi ya vifaranga 252 kwa kadirio la vifaranga 8 kila mzao. Hivyo kama una kuku 10 wanaotunzwa vizuri utakuwa umezalisha jumla ya vifaranga 2520.

Fuatilia kwa wataalamu wa mifugo ili ufundishwe zaidi kuhusu mbinu hiyo ya kuzalisha kuku wengi.

ULEAJI WA VIFARANGA
NJIA YA KUBUNI
NJIA YA ASILI
Njia zote mbili zinafahamika kama huzifahamu tafadhali fuatilia kwa mtaalamu aliye karibu nawe.


MAGONJWA NA WADUDU WANAOSHAMBULIA KUKU WA KIENYEJI NA JINSI YA KUKINGA.

A. MAGONJWA.
Ugonjwa hatari - Mdondo/ Kideri (Newcastle desease) Hapo nyuma dawa ya kukinga ugonjwa huu ilikuwepo lakini ilikuwa inahitaji kuhifadhiwa kwenye hali ya ubaridi (Friji) Hali hiyo ilisababisha iwe ngumu kutumika vijijini kwa dawa hiyo. Hivi sasa kumepatikana chanjoa ambayo inastahimili joto ambayo inaweza kutumika hata vijijini.

Pamoja na mdondo yapo pia magonjwa yanayoshambulia kuku hapa nchini

Ndui ya kuku(Fowl pox)
Mafua ya kuku(Infectious coryza)
Homa ya matumbo (Cocciodiosis)
Minyoo na wadudu kama viroboto, chawa, utitiri na kupe wa kuku.

DALILI ZA KUKU MGONJWA.

Huzubaa
Hali chakula/maji vizuri
Hujitenga na wenzake
Hujikunyata au kuinama
Hutetemeka
Hutembea kwa shida
Utagaji wa mayai hupungua au hukoma kabisa


MAGONJWA YA KUKU HUSABABISHWA NA NINI?
Yako mambo mengi yanayosababisha lakini matunzo hafifu pia huchangia.

ATHARI ZA MAGONJWA.
Hili liko wazi

Maelezo haya ya magonjwa ni mengi hivyo tuwe wafuatiliaji kwa wataalam.



MATIBABU

KIDERI - Sifahamu tiba ya kitaalam ya ugonjwa huu kama kuna ambaye anafahamu tunaomba atufahamishe lakini ziko dawa za asili na za kitaalam ambazo zinafaa zaidi kwa chanjo.
Ugonjwa huu unaweza kuukinga kwa kuwapa kuku chanjo ya Mdondo. Pia usichanganye kuku wako na kuku ambao huna taarifa zao za chanjo.

KUMBUKA
Mdondo au kideri ni ugonjwa tishio ambao huweza kuua kuku wote
Mdondo ukitokea vifo huwa vingi pia kuku hupumua kwa taabu, hupooza na wengine huzunguka na huzungusha vichwa.
Mdondo unaweza kuzuilika kwa chanjo kila baada ya miezi 3

NDUI YA KUKU
HOMA YA MATUMBO (Fowly typhoid)
MAFUA YA KUKU(Infectious coryzya)
KUHARISHA DAMU(Coccidiosis)
Minyoo na wadudu wanaoshambulia kuku kama viroboto n.k

Kwa magonjwa na wadudu tuliowataja hapo juu please wasiliana na mtaalamu wa mifugo aliye karibu nawe Kwani siwezi kueleza kila kitu hapa wataalamu tunao naamini watatusaidia.

TIBA ZA ASILI
Kuna madawa ya asili ambayo hutokana na mimea ambayo hukinga kuku.

BAADHI YA MIMEA INAYOTIBU NA KUKINGA MARADHI YA KUKU.

MWAROBAINI - Typhoid, kuhara, kideri, kifua na vidonda
ALOEVERA - Typhoid, kuhara, kideri, kifua na vidonda,ngozi na Cholera. Tutaelekezana zaidi namna ya kuandaa dawa hii.

Hapa nataka niorodheshe baadhi ya madawa ya asili ambayo yanasaidia kutibu na kukinga kuku.
Mwarobaini, Aloevera, Mtakalang'onyo(Euphorbia),Mbarika, mlonge, Ndulele/dungurusi/tura/ndura, Majani ya mpapai, Mwembe, Minyaa na Pilipili kichaa.

NAWASHUKURU PIA NAOMBA MWENYE MCHANGO ZAIDI AENDELEE KUONGEZEA

Sifa, Faida na Changamoto za Ufugaji wa Kuku wa Asili




Kuku wa Asili ni wale ambao wamekuwepo hapa nchini kwa miaka mingi na damu yao
haijachanganyika na ya kuku wa kigeni. Kuku hawa wana rangi na maumbo mbali mbali.
Idadi ya kuku wa Asili hapa Tanzania inakadiriwa kufikia milioni 56. Kati ya kaya milioni 3.8
zinazojishughulisha na kilimo nchini, kaya milioni 2.3 hujishughulisha na ufugaji wa kuku wa asili.
Kwa kawaida ufugaji wa kuku wa Asili hapa nchini kwetu Tanzania hufanywa na wafugaji wadogo
wadogo wanaoishi kando kando ya miji na wale wanaoishi vijijini. Kuku hawa hufugwa huria (freerange),
yaani hufungiwa ndani nyakati za usiku na hufunguliwa asubuhi ili wajitafutie chakula.
Kuku hawa hutoa mazao machache sana yaani nyama na mayai, kwa mfano kuku mmoja hutaga
kiasi cha mayai 40-60 kwa mwaka badala ya 100-150 iwapo atatunzwa vizuri. Pia uzito wa kuku
hai ni wa chini sana, wastani wa kilo 1.0–1.5 katika umri wa zaidi ya miezi 6 badala ya kilo 1.8–2.5
iwapo atatunzwa vizuri.
Sifa za Kuku wa Asili:
Wastahimilivu wa magonjwa, lakini ni muhimu wakikingwa na baadhi ya magonjwa ya kuku
kama mdondo, ndui ya kuku nk. ili kuweza kuwaendeleza.
Wana uwezo wa kujitafutia chakula ardhini, lakini ili kuwaendeleza ni lazima kuwapa chakula
bora cha ziada.
Wana uwezo wa kuatamia mayai, kutotoa, kulea vifaranga na ustahimilivu wa mazingira
magumu (ukame, baridi nk).
Nyama na mayai yake vina ladha nzuri kuliko kuku wa kisasa.
Kwa kiasi fulani wana uwezo wa kujilinda na maadui kama vile mwewe.
Pamoja na sifa hizi ni muhimu kuku hao wakapewa matunzo mazuri, wawekwe kwenye mabanda
mazuri na imara, pia wapewe maji na chakula cha kutosha.Faida za Ufugaji wa Kuku wa Asili:
Chakula – nyama ya kuku na mayai hutumika kama chakula muhimu cha wanadamu, chenye
protini.
Chanzo cha kipato – mkulima hupata fedha akiuza kuku au mayai.
Chanzo cha ajira – ufugaji wa kuku hutoa ajira kwa jamii.
Kuku hutumika kwenye shughuli za ndoa kama vile kutoa mahari na pia ni kitoweo muhimu
katika sherehe hizo.
Gharama nafuu za kuanzisha na kuendesha mradi huu.
Ni kitoweo rahisi na chepesi kwa wageni kuliko wanyama wakubwa kama ng’ombe au mbuzi.
Ni kitoweo kisichohitaji hifadhi, hutumika mlo mmoja au miwili na kumalizika.
Kuku na mayai hutumika kwa tiba za asili.
Jogoo hutumika kama saa anapowika nyakati za alfajiri na majira mengine ya siku.
Hutuhabarisha iwapo kiumbe kigeni au cha hatari kwa mlio maalum wa kuashiria hatari.
Mbolea – kinyesi cha kuku kinaweza kutumika katika kurutubisha mashamba ya mazao na
mabwawa ya samaki.
Kuendeleza kizazi cha kuku wa asili hapa nchini.
Soko lipo la uhakika, ukilinganisha na kuku wa kisasa kwani nyama na mayai yake hupendwa
zaidi na walaji.
Manyoya ya kuku hutumika kama mapambo, pia huweza kutumiaka kutengenezea mito ya
kulalia na kukalia.
Shughuli za utafiti – kuku wanatumika katika tafiti nyingi za baiolojia, kama kutambua mambo ya
lishe.
Shughuli za viwandani:
Mayai yenye mbegu ya jogoo hutumika katika kutengeneza dawa za chanjo.
Magamba ya mayai yanaweza kutumika katika utengenezaji wa vyakula vya wanyama.
Kiini cha njano cha mayai kinaweza kutumika kutengeneza mafuta ya kuoshea nywele
(shampoo).
Mapungufu ya Kuku wa Asili:
Hutaga mayai madogo wastani wa gramu 47 ambapo kuku wa kisasa wastani wa gramu 55,
aidha hutaga mayai machache wastani wa mayai 60 kwa mwaka ambapo kuku wa kisasa
huweza kutaga hadi mayai 300 kwa mwaka.
Ukuaji taratibu – kuku wa asili hukua taratibu kutokana na lishe duni. Kutokana na hali hiyo kuku
huchukua muda mrefu (miezi sita) kufikia uzito wa kuchinjwa (kilo 1 - 1.5). Hali hii pia hufanya
faida ya ufugaji wa kuku wa asili kuchukua muda mrefu kupatikana.
Nyama yake ni ngumu (huchukua muda mrefu kuiva) ikilinganishwa na kuku wa kisasa.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.



a.
b.
c.
Changamoto katika ufugaji kuku wa asili:
Mabanda: Ukosefu wa mabanda bora.
Wezi, wanyama na ndege hushambulia kuku.
Magonjwa: kama mdondo na ndui huathiri ufugaji wa kuku.
Tabia na miiko ya baadhi ya jamii. Baadhi ya jamii za makabila hapa nchini huona ufugaji wa
kuku kama ni kitu duni.
Upatikanaji haba wa chanjo za magonjwa kama vile, mdondo, ndui, homa ya matumbo.


Tuesday, March 12, 2013

MASHINE ZA KUANGULIA VIFARANGA VYA KUKU



Ili mayai ya kuku yaweze kuanguliwa kunahitajika kuwe na mambo matatu muhimu:
1.       Joto linalotakiwa kwa ajili ya kuangulia mayai
2.       Uvukevuke unaohitajika ili mayai yasipoteze maji mengi mno wakati wa kuatamiwa
3.       Mayai kugeuzwageuzwa angalau mara tatu kwa siku na zaidi ya hiyo mara tat uni vizuri zaidi.
Kwa asili kazi hizo hufanywa na mama kuku akiwa ameatamia mayai yake kwa ufanisi mkubwa sana. Tatizo linaloletwa na utaratibu huu kwa mfugaji ni kuwa mara nyingi kuku huatamia mayai machache tu kwa wakati mmoja. Kwa mfugaji wa kuku anayetaka kufuga kibiashara mfumo huu si mzuri kwa kuwa  mfugaji atapata vifaranga wachache tu tofauti labda na idadi inayotakiwa.
Ili kuondoa shida hii, mashine ambazo hufanya kazi ya mama kuku. Mashine hizo zina uwezo wa kutoa :
1.       Kutoa jito linalotakiwa kuangua vifaranga
2.       Unyevunyevu (humidity) unaotakiwa
3.       Kugeuza mayai mara nyingi kwa kadri inavyotakiwa
Sisi tunatengeneza mashine hizo ambazo zinaitwa incubators. Mashine hizo ni automated kwa maana ya kuwa hufanya kazi hizo zote zenyewe. Hii inasaidia kumpunguzia mfugaji kazi ya kuangalia mayai muda ambao mayai hayo yapo kwenye kiatamizi.
Tunatengeneza mashine za ukubwa tofautitofauti. Mashine hizo zina uwezo wa mayai kutoka 300 hadi 2000.
Kama unahitaji mashine ndogo zaidi ya mashine ya mayai 300 basi tunaweza  kukutengenezea na kama unahitaji mayai mengi zaidi ya 2000 nayo pia tutakutengenezea.
Kwa kuwa wateja wetu wengi wameonesha kuhitaji mashine za mayai machache pia kulingana na kiasi cha ufugaji wao, tumeanza kutengeza mashine za mayai 90, 120, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, na 270n pia.
TUWASILIANE KWA: 0753903809, 0655903809
Au kwa e-mail zifuatazo:
expecamdu@ymail.com
au tembelea hapa:
KARIBUNI SANA.
Sisi tupo Iringa.

Friday, March 8, 2013

USING EGG INCUBATORS TO HATCH CHICKENS



CHOOSING THE RIGHT EGGS
First, you should consider the chickens responsible for fertilizing and laying the eggs. The eggs should come from healthy adult chickens that have a high fertility percentage, were not disturbed during mating season, were fed on a good diet, and are not related to each other.
Examine the eggs. They should also be of a regular shape and average size, not larger or smaller than a typical egg produced by your chickens. Their shells should display no holes or cracks because such damage could encourage disease organisms to penetrate the egg. With this same concern in mind, you should not wash or wipe the egg, as you could remove the egg's natural protective coating that guards against such organisms.
The eggs should also be cared for correctly before incubation. This will help ensure a productive hatch. To care for the chicken eggs:
  • Store eggs in a cool, humid area, ideally 12.1 Degrees Centigrade with 75% humidity.
  • Store eggs with the large end up.
  • Turn eggs daily, use an X and 0 marking system to keep track.
  • Eggs can be stored for up 10 seven days.
  • Allow cool eggs to warm up to the ambient temperature where the egg incubator is located before putting them into the incubator.
USING THE EGG INCUBATOR
Using an egg incubator correctly will ensure the best possible success rate when hatching chicken eggs.
When hatching chickens, once the best eggs have been selected, the next step is to incubate the eggs.
An incubator is a device the mimics the environment chicken eggs would experience under a hen. The incubator keeps the eggs uniformly moist and warm, the most important conditions to consider when hatching chicken eggs. Maintaining the proper conditions within the incubator will increase the number of eggs that will actually hatch after the incubation period, about 21 days.
Proper Incubator Conditions for Chicken Eggs
When an incubator is purchased, it will come with instructions. However, knowing what conditions are ideal beforehand will help guarantee successful hatching. Temperature and humidity must be monitored daily. When setting up the incubator, the following steps should be taken before placing the eggs inside:
1. The incubator should be turned on' and brought up to temperature at least 24 hours prior to adding eggs. The incubator should be kept at around 37.6 degrees Centigrade.
2. For days 1-18, the air should be about 58-60% humid. After day 18, the humidity should be raised to 65%.You may use a Hygrometer placed inside the incubator to measure the humidity.
Chicken Egg Incubation Days 1-18
After the incubator has reached the proper temperature and humidity levels, place the eggs inside.
Besides keeping steady temperature and humidity, the most important thing to do when the chicken eggs are incubating is to turn them daily for the first eighteen days. Turning the eggs makes sure the chicks do not stick to the membrane on the side of the egg wall as they develop. If they do get stuck, they could be deformed or could drown in the liquid inside the egg when hatching. Ideally, they should be turned four to six times a day, but two to three times works well. It is best to turn them an odd number of times a day.
Mark an X on one side of all of the eggs, and an 0 on the other side to easily see which eggs need to be turned. When turning the eggs, use only clean hands to avoid infecting the eggs.
Chicken Egg Incubation after Day 18
On day eighteen of the incubation period the egg turning of the eggs should stop. Turning the eggs after eighteen days could inure the chicks.
At this point, the humidity of the incubator should be raised. The lid of the incubator should then be closed and the eggs should not be touched for the rest of the incubation period.
While waiting for the eggs to begin to hatch, the brooder box should be prepared to house the chicks until they are old enough to be outside on their own. A cardboard box lined with either newspapers or sawdust will work well. A heat lamp should be set up to shine directly into the box. The best temperature to keep the brooder box is 35 degrees Centigrade.
The chicks will begin to peep inside the eggs at about day twenty-one. It could take them up to 24 hours to fully hatch. During this time, the chicks will pull the egg yolk into their stomachs. Do not help the chicks out of their shells because the yolk could break, causing them to bleed to death. After a chick is fully hatched, let it dry completely in the incubator before removing it and placing it in the brooder box. It will most likely take several days for all of the eggs to hatch. Plan to open the incubator only once a day to remove dry chicks to avoid chilling the ones that are still damp. They will not starve to death if they remain in the incubator for a day because the yolk sustains them for three days.
After day 25, if there are still eggs that have not hatched, they should be removed and thrown away. The eggs were either unfertile or the chicks died before they could hatch. Before reusing the incubator it should be thoroughly cleaned and dried.

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Sifa za banda bora la Kuku


Ukiamua kufuga katika banda kwa njia mbili zilizoelezwa awali utatakiwa kujenga banda
lenye sifa zitakazokidhi mahitaji ya msingi ya kuku. Banda bora la kuku linatakiwa kuwa
kama ifuatavyo:
Liwe jengo imara
• Pasiwe na sehemu zilizo wazi kwenye msingi na kati ya ukuta na paa.
• Banda lijengwe na vifaa vinavyopatikana katika mazingira yako ili liwe na gharama
utakayoweza kumudu.
• Unaweza kutumia matofali ya udongo, udongo, miti, fito,n.k. Ukitumia fito au mabanzi
ondoa maganda ili kuthibiti mchwa.
• Jengo mara litazuia maadui kama panya, vicheche, paka, nyoka na wezi kuingia ndani
ya banda na kuwadhuru au kuwaiba kuku.
Liwe rahisi kusafisha
• Kuta na sakafu visiribwe zisiwe na nyufa ili kurahisisha kusafisha.
• Pia itadhibiti kusiwe na wadudu wa kujificha katika nyufa kama papasi, viroboto n.k.
• Sakafu ya banda lazima iwekewe matandazo kama pumba ya mpunga au maranda
ya mbao au mabaki ya mazao au nyasi kavu kutegemeana na kinachopatikana kwa
urahisi katika mazingira yako.
• Matandazo haya husaidia kunyonya unyevu unaotokana na kinyesi cha kuku au maji
yanayomwagika katika banda.
• Banda hubakia kavu bila kuwa na harufu mbaya na wadudu kama inzi hata vimelea
vya magonjwa hudhibitiwa.
Eneo la nje kuzunguka banda kuwe na usafi wa kudumu
Hali ya usafi nje ya banda itafanya wadudu kama siafu au mchwa na wanyama kama
panya na paka mwitu wakose maficho. Nje ya banda ndani ya uzio kuwe na miti midogo
na mimea mingine midogo kwa ajili ya kivuli.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Poultry Husbandry Chapter VI: Hatching Eggs and Incubation


The Breeder Flock

Healthy chicks come from good breeders. Breeder nutrition, uniformity and the vaccination program are critical.

Breeder Flock Health, Age and Nutrition

A healthy breeder flock, females with a good rate of lay mated to vigorous males, will usually produce highly fertitle eggs that hatch well under good incubation practices. Hatching eggs from new breeder flocks (just starting to lay) do not hatch as well as eggs from those that have been laying for three to four months. Hatchability of eggs from old breeders nearing the end of their laying period also declines.
A hatching ration should be fed to breeders for about three weeks prior to saving eggs for incubation. The extra vitamins and minerals that it contains, as opposed to a laying ration, are essential for good hatchability. Sometimes, poor hatching results occur when a lower priced laying ration is used. The nutritional requirement of the breeder hen must be adequate for optimum hatching and good chick quality.

Clean Eggs are Important

Breeder house sanitation, nest box sanitation and hatching egg care are important to the production of healthy chicks. Nest material must be clean and dry and free of contamination. It should be cleaned daily (remove dirty material and droppings) and replenished or changed weekly. Para-formaldehyde pellets (20-25 g per nest, per month) will improve nest-box sanitation.
Breeder farms require a clean area where eggs can be cleaned, selected for quality and placed large end up on hatching trays. The temperature of this room should not be less than 21BC. If eggs are stored on the farm, temperature and humidity must be controlled.

Selection and Care of Hatching Eggs

Set only clean eggs. If eggs are soiled, it is preferable to clean them with sandpaper & egg brush. If hatching eggs are washed, the temperature of the water must be 43 to 44BC. The eggs should be spray washed with detergent, sanitized and fan-dried. Improperly washed eggs may rot or explode during the incubation period. Dirty eggs can be reduced if the eggs are gathered four or five times daily from nests supplied with fresh, clean nest material and if the litter in the breeding pens is kept dry so the hens feet are clean. Do not set floor eggs. Collect eggs with clean hands onto clean flats.
Select hatching eggs that are uniform in size (recommended minimum 52g for meat-type), shape and colour, with good sound shells. Do not set malformed, porous-shelled, doubled-yolked eggs or eggs with cracks. Shells that have a mottled appearance upon candling are not considered to have poor shell quality and can usually be set with good hatching results.
Since smaller eggs hatch in less time than large eggs it is recommended that eggs be separated by size and that small eggs be put in the incubator 8-18 hours after the larger eggs are set.
The hatching percentage will be the highest if eggs are held at a temperature of 16 to 17BC for not more than one week before setting. Higher temperatures initiate embryo growth. Storage temperature should be reduced to 13BC if eggs are being held for two weeks or longer. Eggs may sweat when moved to warm, humid areas. This allows bacteria to penetrate the shell. Turning eggs during the holding period is not beneficial. It has been shown that eggs held for more than 2 weeks hatched better when stored small end up (contrary to the accepted traditional large end-up postion). Relative humidity should be maintained at approximately 80% in the egg holding room. Higher humidity encourages mold growth. Prior to placing eggs in the incubator, they may be removed from the egg storage room and warmed to room temperature for approximately 6 hours.

The Incubator Room

In the selection of a successful incubator room, factors such as heating, humidity, ventilation, and sanitation should all be considered. Optimum results can be expected if the temperature can be maintained at between 24 and 27BC, with uniform humidity below the level that is required in the incubator. Tropical climates (heat & humidity) make it difficult to maintain good incubator room conditions. Good ventilation and a constant supply of oxygen to remove excess carbon dioxide from the environment surrounding the incubating eggs is necessary for the developing embryo. High altitude reduces available oxygen.
An incubator should not be placed near an outside wall or window in cold climates or in direct sunlight.

Incubators

Incubators are the most important equipment in the hatchery process. Many kinds of incubators are manufactured; however, the general principles of all modern machines for commercial hatchery production are the same. Incubator setting capacity ranges from approximately 14,000 to 100,000 eggs.
During incubation, the hatching eggs are set vertically, with the large ends up in trays or flats in a setter and turned mechanically until about three days prior to hatching (setting period). The eggs are then transferred to a hatcher (hatching period) in a horizontal position and not turned during the hatching process. Both setters and hatchers have forced-draft air circulation, automatic temperature, humidity and cooling controls.
For small backyard poultry operators, there are small, still-air machines. Capacity of these incubators varies from 12 to 200 eggs. The eggs are set in a horizontal position and are usually turned manually. This type of incubator may be used for the entire incubation period for any kind of eggs. The source of heat is a thermostatically controlled heating element or light bulb. Humidity is supplied in most cases by water in a pan below the eggs, and ventilation controlled by small air vents or holes. Most still-air machines have transparent plastic domes through which the incubation process can be observed.
Incubation Time for some Common Avian Species
Chicken - 21 days
Turkey - 28 days
Japanese quail - 17 days
Guinea fowl - 26 days
Pheasant, Partridge - 24 days
Duck - 28 days
Muscovy duck - 35 days
Goose - 28-32 days
Egyptian goose - 35 days

The Principal Factors in Incubation

The five main factors affecting incubation, listed in order of importance are: temperature, humidity, ventilation, position, and turning of the eggs.
Some factors to consider before purchasing an incubator:
1. Any incubator will produce better results when operating at capacity. Egg capacity is a factor;
2. How long the incubator will last and cost of all replacement parts;
3. Service and availability of parts;
4. Accuracy of controls, to keep temperature and humidity fluctuations to a minimum;
5. The amount of labour involved in operating the machine and carrying out a thorough sanitation program;
6. The guarantee.

Temperature

Hatching eggs may be warmed to a temperature of 25 to 30BC, prior to setting. The normal development of the embryo is dependent on the heat being held within a very narrow range in the incubator. In small still-air incubators, the temperature of the upper surface of the egg is higher than on the lower surface, while in large incubators, the air movement maintains the same temperature over the entire surface. For this reason, a still-air incubator must be operated at a higher temperature than a forced-draft incubator.
In small still-air incubators, a constant temperature of 39BC is considered satisfactory to produce good hatching results. The temperature may vary between 37.5 and 39.5BC without hurting the embryos as long as the temperature does not remain at either extreme. These readings should be taken with the bulb of the thermometer level with the upper surface of the eggs, but not in contact with the egg shell. A standing thermometer will give a more reliable reading than a hanging thermometer and the thermometer must be accurate. The temperature may rise one degree at hatching time without causing any reduction in hatch percentage.
In large incubators, the temperature, humidity, and speed of air movement are very closely dependent on each other, and since air speed varies in different incubators, it is impossible to state an exact operating temperature for all large machines, but generally it is around 37.5BC for a setter and 37BC for a hatcher. Follow the manufacturer's instructions closely with regard to temperature and ensure that instructions are for the model in use. High temperatures even for a very short period of time during any part of the incubation period will cause more harm than low temperatures.

Numerous factors may contribute to high or low incubator temperatures.

  • high or low room temperatures or floor temperature under the incubator affect the operating temperature of both large and small incubators. A large incubator placed near an outside wall may have one section operating at a lower or higher temperature than the other. These problems and those listed below will result in one group of eggs hatching earlier or later than the others, increased embryo mortality or cause leg deformity in chicks & poults.
  • floor temperature variation because of drains causing cold or heat under the incubator.
  •  an incubator thermometer not reading correctly.
  •  the failure of automatic equipment such as thermostats, cooling coils or automatic dampers.
  • improper air circulation leading in turn to a rise in temperature in part of the incubator, because of: a decrease in fan speed, usually caused by low voltage or a slipping fan belt; incorrect spacing of filled egg trays in a partially filled incubator.
  • overloading an incubator for any one setting of eggs.

Humidity

During the incubation or setting period, eggs should lose 11 to 12% of their weight (another 3 to 4% in the hatcher, after day 18), due mainly to a loss of moisture. The amount of moisture (humidity) in the incubator controls the rate of evaporation from the egg. The evaporation rate is also related to temperature, air speed, shell thickness, and size of eggs; the smaller the eggs, the greater percentage of moisture loss. Too great a moisture loss from the egg in the early stage of incubation will cause the embryo to adhere to the shell, causing death. Insufficient evaporation may cause death from lack of oxygen because of a small air cell, since just prior to pipping the shell, the embryo pips into the air cell and starts to breath air. The best guides to the correct amount of humidity in an incubator is the weight loss and the size and enlargement of the air cell during incubation, or the position at which the chick pips the shell. The degree of enlargement of the air cell should be determined by candling several eggs and estimating the averagee evaporation.
The amount of moisture in an incubator may be referred to as "relative humidity", which is a percentage of the moisture in the air at any given temperature. This can be measured by a wet-bulb thermometer. The relationship between dry-bulb air temperature, wet-bulb readings and relative humidity is shown in Table 1.
A wet-bulb reading is based on air movement, and for this reason, a wet-bulb thermometer cannot be used to determine the amount of humidity in a still-air incubator. The relative humidity for small incubators is usually stated as 60%. Other inexpensive but less accurate equipment is available to measure relative humidity. A level water pan on the floor of the incubator under the eggs during the entire incubation period will generally supply sufficient moisture to give good hatching results, provided the moisture content of the air in the environment is neither too high or too low. Percent egg weight loss during the setting period can act as a guide to the correct humidity. This can be done by weighing some eggs at the start of incubation and the same eggs again on the 7th and 18th day, and calculating the loss that occurred (write the weight on the shell with a pencil). Chicken eggs should lose approximately 4.5% and 11.5% during the first 7 and the first 18 days of incubation respectively.
Eggshells thicker than 0.34 mm are too thick and humidity should be reduced to increase moisture loss. Below 0.31 mm is too thin. Normal would be 0.33 to 0.34 mm at the beginning of production. Shell thickness decreases with age of breeder hen with 0.31 mm normal at 60 weeks.
In large incubators, the temperature, air speed and humidity are intimately related, and the manufacturer’s instructions should be followed closely. Better hatching results may be obtained if the temperature is lowered and the humidity raised at hatching time (only if separate hatching compartments are available). Lowering the air temperature will provide an additional increase in relative humidity to keep shell membranes moist during the hatching process.

TABLE 1. PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY AT DIFFERENT WET-BULB READINGS
Wet-bulb Reading Relative Humidity (%) at Air Temperature of
(BC)
37.2BC %
37.8BC %
32.2
70
68
31.7
67
65
31.1
65
63
30.6
62
60
30.0
59
57
29.4
56
54
28.9
53
51
28.3
51
48
27.8
48
46
27.2
45
43
26.7
43
41
Incorrect humidity may be due to a number of factors, the more important of which are listed below:
1. High environmental humidity in tropical countries.
2. A wet-bulb thermometer reading incorrectly. Remove the wick to determine whether the thermometer is reading the same as the dry-bulb thermometer.
3. Dust and dirt on the wet-bulb wick. Change wicks often and use only distilled water in the reservoir.
4. In small incubators with humidity supplied by water pan evaporation, ensure that there is always an adequate amount of water in the pan, as the rate of evaporation is dependent on the humidity in the room. The lower the humidity in the room, the higher the evaporation and vice versa. During hatching fluff settles on the surface of the water producing a film that causes a reduction in the rate of water evaporation necessary for optimum hatchability. Clean the water pan daily and replace with clean, lukewarm water.
5. Ventilating an incubator to control temperature will lower humidity in a dry environment unless automatic humidifiers are being used in the incubator room.
6. If airflow in incubators is not uniform humidity may be different from bottom to top or side to side.

Ventilation

The free movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor through the pores of the shell is important, since the developing embryo must be able to take in a constant supply of oxygen and release carbon dioxide and moisture. Oxygen content of 21% (present in air at sea level) and a carbon dioxide content not exceeding 0.5% in the air are considered optimum for good hatching results. Room temperature, room humidity, the number of eggs set, the period of incubation, and the air movement in the incubator all influence ventilation requirements. Ventilation problems are not the same in small incubators as they are in large incubators, where a large number of eggs are set in a very small space.
During the early part of the incubation period, ventilation in small incubators may be held to a minimum. However, during the hatching period additional ventilation must be supplied to reduce the carbon dioxide in the incubator. It is advisable not to increased ventilation until half of the hatch has been completed, since ventilating too soon will reduce the humidity. In large incubators, the manufacturer's directions should be followed, however, ventilating recommendations may not be applicable to every locality and every room condition.
If ventilation is used to control either temperature or humidity in the incubator, the control of the same factors in the incubator room are important. At a room temperature below 18 C, ventilating an incubator will reduce both temperature and humidity. In a room with high humidity, (tropical countries) the primary concern is to maintain the correct temperature.
The main ventilation consideration may be summarized as follows:
1. Ventilation is more important in large incubators than in small incubators.
2. The amount of ventilation required may be altered by atmospheric conditions.
3. Ventilation is very important in any incubator at hatching time. Insufficient ventilation may result in embryo or chick death.
4. Ventilation in excess of the recommended amount may be applied to reduce temperature or humidity.
5. The appearance of chicks panting in a hatcher at normal temperature is an indication of a rise in the carbon dioxide content of the hatcher air. Under such conditions chicks must breathe faster to obtain the required amount of oxygen and to eliminate the exceses carbon dioxide. If excessive panting occurs, increase the airflow in the hatcher.

Position and Turning of Eggs

In small incubators, the eggs are maintained in a horizontal position during the entire incubation period. In large incubators eggs should be placed in a vertical position, large end up, during the hatching period. In small incubators, the eggs are moved when turned, while in large incubators they remain in a stationary position on the incubator tray and the egg tray is turned through an angle of not less than 90 in opposite directions with each turning. The objective is the same in both types of incubators; namely, to prevent the embryo from sticking to the shell membranes. Turning also ensures a complete contact of the embryonic membranes with the food material in the egg, especially in early stages of incubation.
In small incubators, the eggs should be turned at least four times daily. It is advisable to leave some space on the tray to allow for moving the eggs forward a 1/2 turn on one turn and back a 1/2 turn on the next, thus making sure that all the eggs move. Eggs should not be turned in a complete circle, as this has a tendency to rupture the allantois sac with resultant embryonic mortality. Wash hands carefully before turning eggs to avoid bacterial contamination of the shell. In large incubators, the trays are usually turned hourly with all the egg trays moving at one time. For good hatchability, eggs should be turned to a position at least 45 from vertical, then reversed in the opposite direction to a similar position. In the most recent models of incubators, eggs are turned through an arc of 150 and in a few models they are turned as far as 180 . The introduction of these newer methods of turning eggs has been an important aspect in improving hatchability. Eggs should not be turned in either large or small incubators during the hatching period. The greatest benefit from turning eggs is during the first week in incubation.

Other Factors Affecting Incubation

Egg Selection

Poor quality hatching eggs do not hatch as well as eggs of good quality. The term "quality" refers to the condition outside the shell, the condition of the shell itself and that of the contents. Eggs with inferior characteristics, as discussed in "Selection and Care of Hatching Eggs," should not be set.

Sanitation

Eggs used for hatching should be clean and stored in clean containers in a sanitary egg holding room. Eggs contaminated with bacterial organisms usually do not hatch well and this poor quality is reflected in the chicks that do hatch.

Egg Handling

Rough handling of hatching eggs before they are set will increase the number of dead embryos, with mortality occurring between the 4th and 13th day of incubation. Also, jarring eggs during incubation may result in the rupture of the egg shell membrane and thereby lower hatchability.
Large fluctuations in temperature and humidity during storage will have a major adverse affect on hatchability. Refer to "Selection and Care of Hatching Eggs" for proper egg storage procedure.

Toxicity

If the interior of an incubator is painted or varnished, or if the trays are varnished, the percentage of hatch will be reduced, possibly by as much as 25%. This adverse effect disappears in about 30 days, suggesting that the ill effect is eliminated by oxidation of the paint.
This problem may be overcome without any reduction in percentage of hatch if the incubator is fumigated with formaldehyde gas at the concentration recommended for proper hatchery fumigation. The gassing should be done as soon as the paint is dry and with the incubator operating at recommended temperature and humidity for incubating eggs.

Automatic Equipment

The addition of automatic equipment has eliminated many of the problems with incubators, however, such hazards may occur when automatic devices fail. During hatching all automatic devices, such as cooling coils, automatic dampers, tray turners, alarm bells, etc., should be checked at regular intervals. Electrical failure may require that automatic equipment be reset. After an incubator is purchased, it is important to know how every part operates.

Egg Candling

Candling chicken eggs on the 7th and 18th day of incubation, may be recommended for small poultry producers. Egg candling will detect infertiles and early dead germs. Therefore, problems within the hatching flock can be identified without waiting until the incubation period is completed.

Improper Fumigation

Closely follow instructions outlined in "Fumigation Procedure". Excessive and improper fumigation can result in high mortality in developing embryos.

Fumigation of Incubators

The killing of bacterial organisms by formaldehyde gas is based on the concentrations of the gas, exposure time, temperature, and humidity of the incubator. The chemicals potassium permanganate and formalin (which is 40% formaldehyde gas) have proven to be the most effective method of destroying bacterial organisms in the hatchery. To accomplish the proper release of the gas, one and one-half parts (by volume) formalin is added to one part (by weight) of potassium permanganate. This will release the formaldehyde as gas or fumigant. When the reaction is complete, a dry, brown powder will be left. If the residue is wet, not enough permanganate was used; if the residue is purple, too much permanganate was added.

Concentration

The recommended concentration for effective fumigation is 53 mL of formalin added to 36 g of potassium permanaganate per cubic metre of space to be fumigated, or 1 1/2 mL of formalin added to 1 g of potassium permanganate per cubic foot of space to be fumigated.
Caution: Never add the permanagante to the formalin. Heat is generated when the two chemicals are combined, and care should be taken. Formaldehyde gas is generated quickly. Do not allow the fumes to get into the eyes. Personnel should use a respirator or wear a mask to avoid unnecessary exposure. Ventilate the incubator room to remove fumes that escape from the incubator.

Time

It is not recommended to fumigate setters with hatching eggs in them, but if such treatment becomes necessary, embryos between 24 and 96 hours of age should not be exposed to the above concentration of formaldehyde. Hatching compartments should be fumigated after the eggs are transferred from the setter to the hatcher, again after the hatch has been taken off and before the refuse has been removed from the trays, and finally after the hatcher has been thoroughly cleaned. Do not fumigate chicks with this concentration of formaldehyde gas. Small still-air incubators should be fumigated after the chicks have been removed and prior to discarding the refuse from the tray and again after the incubator has been thoroughly cleaned.

Fumigation Procedure

1. Make sure the temperature and humidity of the incubators are at normal operating conditions.
2. Measure the inside volume of the machine in cubic feet or cubic metres (length x width x height).
3. Close the ventilators, but leave the fans on.
4. Weigh the required amount of potassium permanganate into a wide enamelware or earthenware vessel large enough to accommodate the boiling and splattering action experienced when the formalin is added. Place the vessel and the permanganate in the area to be fumigated; then add the formalin.
5. Close the door immediately and leave closed for 20 minutes.
6. After 20 minutes, open the ventilators.
7. Open the doors of the machine for five minutes, leaving the fan on to allow more of the formaldehyde gas to escape, or neutralize it with a 25% solution of ammonium hydroxide equal to one-half the amount of formalin used. The hydroxide should be thrown directly on the floor of the machine and the doors closed. The formaldehyde gas will quickly be neutralized.

Continuous Fumigation of Hatcher

The greatest increase in bacterial organisms occurs during the hatching period. These can be reduced, but not completely eliminated, by slow release of formalin in the hatcher during the last 48 hours of the hatching period.
For continuous fumigation to be effective, hatching eggs should also be fumigated at transfer time with the recommended concentration.
Place formalin in pan about 25 mm in depth, allowing 58 cm2 of pan for each cubic metre of hatcher space, or a pan about 1 in. deep, allowing 30 in2 of pan for approximately 1000 ft3 of hatcher space. Do not use permanganate. The pan should be placed in the open area of the hatcher in direct line with the airflow.
Place the pan of formalin in hatcher 48 hours prior to hatch completion. To overcome fluff deposited on the formalin, add more formalin about 24 hours before hatch is complete to increase evaporation.
If the fan stops (mechanical failure etc.) and reduces the airflow, remove the pan of formalin immediately. If hatchers are only partially full, continuous fumigation is not recommended, as a reduction in airflow will create an excessive build up of formalin in the hatcher.

Effects of Fumigation

1. Properly carried out, fumigation should not affect hatchability.
2. Fumigation will only kill bacteria that are present on the surface of hatchery refuse. Fumigation will not kill bacteria inside unhatched or pipped eggs. It is important to dispose of hatchery refuse carefully to minimize hatchery contamination.
3. The hatchery room must be separate from the tray dumping room and from the chick processing area. Air flow and traffic must be controlled to prevent contamination of the chick processing and holding areas.
4. Efficient fumigation along with other sanitary measures should control navel infection (omphalitis).
5. Fumigation is not intended to replace a thorough cleaning program.

HATCHERY DESIGN

Hatchery layout is important to a good sanitation program. Arrange the hatchery so there is a one-way flow of material from the point where the hatching eggs are brought in to where the processed chicks go out.
Hatcheries should be designed so the flow of eggs, chicks and personnel does not spread contamination from one room to the next. Doors, including one-way doors, help stop cross contamination between rooms. Positive air pressure prevents contamination through an open door. Workers should change outer clothing and wash hands before moving from one work station to another.
SUMMARY OF SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS
1. Feed breeder flock hatching ration that is well fortified with essential nutrients.
2. Use healthy breeding stock.
3. Provide good egg-holding facilities.
4. Avoid holding eggs in storage for more than one week.
5. Prewarm eggs for 6 to 8 hours at incubator room temperature.
6. Set clean, good quality eggs. Delay setting small eggs (those more than 10% less than average ) for 8 to 16 hours.
7. Maintain correct incubation temperature, humidity and ventilation. Make sure air intake does not draw contaminated air into the incubator.
8. Turn hatching eggs frequently.
9. Maintain incubator room temperature between 21 and 24BC with good ventilation and relatively high humidity.
10. Fumigate regularly.
11. Clean vaccinating and beak trimming equipment. Newly hatched chicks may pick up contamination and infection in the hatchery from vaccinating and beak trimming equipment. This equipment requires a very rigid sanitation schedule.
12. Practice strict sanitation; cleanliness is very important for successful hatching operation. Make sure belts, equipment and workers hands used to move eggs or newly hatched chicks are kept clean.