Sunday, June 22, 2008

HIVI NDIVYO YALIVYO BUNGENI

Ndugu mhariri,Nafurahi kupata nafasi hii ili niandike kidogo kile ninachokiona katika bajeti iliyosomwa bungeni wiki jana.Bajeti hii imezingatia nini.Mimi nafikiri bajeti hii haikuzingatia maslahi yoyote ya Mtanzania maana inaonekana waziri mwenyewe alisoma kitu asichokifahamu mpaka pale wapinzani walipo mshtua kuwa anachosoma si kile alichokuwa amewapa katika vitabu walivyopewa wabunge kabla.Nafikiri hakukuwa na umakini wowote wakati wa maandalizi ya bajeti hiyo. Wabunge walio wengi ni wavivu hata hawapitii kuisoma waielewe ndio wapige kura za kuunga mkono bajeti hiyo. Wabunge wengi husubiri siku ya kuunga mkono bajeti waunge mkono wa "ndio mzee" ili mambo yaishe. Hawajali maslahi ya wapiga kura wao. Hii inaonekana pale mbunge wa viti maalumu anapopewa nafasi ya kuchangia halafu anasimama na kusema mbunge mwenzake ameongea kwa mbwembwe wakati umma wa Watanzania wanaona amewatetea.Mimi nafikiri Watanzania tuache kushabikia vitu tusivyovifahamu vizuri maana hali hiyo inafanya serikali itumie umbumbumbu wetu kupanga bajeti inayo mbana Mtanzania wa kawaida na kumnufaisha aliye nacho tayari.Hivi serikali inatumia kale kaaya kwenye Biblia kanakosema "Aliye nacho ataongezewa na asiye nacho atanyang'anywa hata alicho nacho?".Nashauri serikali ipange mipango inayosaidia wananchi walio wengi maana wamo katika nchi yao. Ni kweli kwamba kuna kikundi kidogo kinachofaidika na nchi hii. Pia wabunge waache ushabiki usio na maana wakae chini wachambue mambo kwa makini ndipo wapige kura ya kuunga mkono hotuba ya bajeti. Nasema hili maana ninao uhakika kuna wabunge wachache sana ambao wanaelewa maana ya kimaisha iliyomo katika bajeti hiyo.

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

WAHEHE

Ungazija wa Wanyalukolo
na Mduda Expedito
KARIBU msomaji kwa mara nyingine tena katika safu yetu ya Ndivyo Ilivyo. Wiki iliyopita tuliitambua asili ya Wahehe wenye mchanganyiko wa Uhabeshi na niliwaahidi kumalizia simulizi zao kwa kuchunguza mchanganyiko wao na kizazi cha Kingazija.
Tukiendelea na baadhi ya makundi ya Wanitole ‘Wahabeshi’ ya Wahehe, ambayo sikuyataja wiki iliyopita, ni pamoja na Vahafiwa walioishi sehemu za Kalenga, Kipagala, Kihesa, Tambalangombe, Ibanangosi, Tipingi, Ikolofya, Nyambila, Kibebe, Welu na Isanzala. Mtawala wao alikuwa Mwalyelu aliyetawala Welu hadi Pawaga ‘Mavaga’ na Mwamwano Mwansige aliyetawala Wutinde.
Majina ya watu wa kundi hili yalitokana hasa na kufa kwao kwa wingi kwa njaa na maafa, hawa ni kina Mwamugovano, Mwamaliga, Mwamukemangwa na Mwamuhesa. Husalimiana ‘kamwene hafiwa’ au ‘kamwene muponela’ ila kina Mwachaula husalimiana ‘kamwene lugome’. Vanyatengeta ni kundi lililoshi maeneo ya Uzungwa, Kitelevasi na Lundamatwe.
Hawa walikuwa ni mafundi wa kufua chuma, walioishi kwenye milima yenye asili ya milipuko ili kutafuta mchanga wenye chuma, baadhi yao ni kina Mwachusi na Mwamuvange. Salamu yao ni ‘kamwene tegeta’ ila kina Kalinga husalimiana ‘kamwene higo’, wao hawali mbawala.
Vanyakilwa ni watu walitokea Kilwa na kuishi maeneo ya Mufindi, hawa ni kina Mwalwagi na Mwakihwele, salamu yao ni ‘kamwene kilwa’. Vasavila waliishi juu ya milima ya Welu sehemu za Makungu, Magubike na Matogalu, hawa ni kina Mwamfilinge na Mwakasike. Vadongwe ni kundi lililoishi pembezoni mwa vilima katika maeneo ya Uhambingeto, Ipogolo, Nyabula na Luhota.
Wao ni mchanganyiko wa Wanitole na Wasungwa na salamu yao ni ‘kamwene huvi’. Baadhi yao ni kina Mwamuyovela, Mwamaluvanga na Mwamukakilwa. Makundi haya ya Wahehe yanadhihirisha kuwa, wao ni mchanganyiko wa vizazi vya watu wa jamii tofauti tofauti. Hebu tuone mathalan, jinsi damu ya Kingazija ilivyoingia kwa Wahehe na kuleta utawala wa Muyinga, kizazi cha kina Mkwavinyika (Mkwawa).
Wenyeji wa asili wa Iringa kabla ya Mwamuyinga kuingia na kuanza kutawala, ni Wasungwa, ukiwaacha Wanitole kwa mujibu wa historia halisi iliyovurugwa na tawala za vikundi vya hao Wanitole.
Wasungwa huishi katika safu ya milima ya Usungwa iliyopo mashariki ya mji wa Iringa. Mwamuyinga ambaye pia ana majina ya Mbunsungulu, Mwakilyemikongi, Muhumba, Mdagaluhando na Lwimato, yaliyotokana na taabu alizozipata kutoka Ukaguru hadi Mahenge, lakini jina lake halisi ni Hasani Yusufu, mjukuu wa Hasani Hasani, mtu aliyetokea Ungazija kupitia Ushelisheli hadi pwani ya Afrika ya Mashariki, akitafuta vipusa, pembe za ndovu na kufanya biashara ya utumwa kama ilivyokuwa kawaida ya Waarabu wengi wakati huo.
Alifika Kilwa Kisiwani na kushinda vita alivyopigana na kulowea huko kwa kuoa mwanamke wa Kiafrika aliyemzalia mtoto aitwaye Yusufu Hasani, aliyerithi usultani wake hapo baadaye na kumuoa mwanamke wa Kiafrika pia aliyekuwa binti Mulimba na kuzaa nae watoto wawili wa kiume, Hasani au ‘Mbunsungulu’ na Ahmad.
Yusuf Hasani aliondolewa mamlakani na kuuawa na Wareno waliokuwa wanapiga vita utumwa. Hasani ‘Mbunsungulu’ na nduguye Ahmad walikimbilia Mafia walikopendwa sana na wenyeji wa huko na walianza kutawala huko, ambako Mbunsungulu alioa.
Wakati mkewe akisubiri kujifungua, taarifa za Wareno kutaka kuwafuata na kuwaangamiza baada ya kugundua kuwa wako huko, ziliwafikia kupitia kwa mjomba wao, Malik Sud, aliyenusurika kwenye mapambano Kilwa Kisiwani. Kwa hiyo, iliwalazimu Mbunsungulu, Ahmad na mjomba wao kukimbilia Ukaguru karibu na Kilosa.
Kabla ya kuondoka, Mbunsungulu alimuusia mkewe kuwa mtoto akizaliwa aitwe Wakinakuonewa. Mbunsungulu alioa tena huko alikokimbilia na mkewe alimzalia watoto watatu, Ngulusavangi, Mufwimi na Ngwila.
Mama huyo alihama na kukimbia na watoto wake kutoka Ukaguru kuelekea Upogoroni, maeneo ya Ulanga huko Mahenge, baada ya Mbunsungulu, Ahmad na mjomba wao, kuvamiwa na Waarabu na kuuawa.
Vijana hao watatu wakaondokea kuwa wawindaji hodari sana huko walikokimbilia na walikuwa hawanywi maji ya mito, kila jioni walichimba visima. Ugomvi uliowatenganisha ulitokana na jambo hilo pamoja na kitendo cha Ngwila kutangulia kuoa kabla ya kaka zake Ngulusavangi na Mufwimi bila ya idhini yao.
Kuna habari nyingi za vijana hawa wote watatu, lakini tutajihusisha zaidi na Mufwimi ambaye uzao wake ndio ulimleta Muyinga.
Mufwimi aliendelea na uwindaji akiwa na wafuasi wake Mwilapwa, Mafumiko na Mabiki pamoja na mbwa wawili; Ludoviko na Muhepapakwima.
Alisafiri hadi Dabaga katika maeneo ya Ng’uluhe akifikia kwanza Ikombagulu alikowaacha wafuasi wake kwa muda na kuendelea mbele kuwinda katika eneo lililotawaliwa na Mwamududa. Huyu bwana alikuwa na uwezo wa kuua nyati hata kumi kwa siku, aliichoma nyama porini na kuipaka chumvi na kumtumia mtawala Mwamududa na kwa kuwa watu wa huko hawakuwa wanaijua chumvi bado, Mwamududa alipoipata nyama hiyo iliyotiwa chumvi aliiona tamu sana.
Chumvi ilimfanya Mufwimi apendwe na kupewa ruhusa ya kuwinda atakavyo na alipokaribishwa, aliomba mahala pa kulala akapewa nafasi nyumbani kwa mtawala Mwamududa. Huko alianza kufanya mapenzi ya siri na binti wa Mwamududa aliyekataa kuolewa na wanaume wengi waliojitokeza kumposa, hatimaye alimpa mimba. Alipoambiwa juu ya mimba hiyo na yule binti, aliagiza mtoto akizaliwa salama akiwa wa kiume aitwe Mwamuyinga na akiwa wa kike aitwe Semuyinga.
Mwiko wake asile funo, mnyama mdogo wa porini jamii ya mbuzi na nyakihuko, mnyama afananaye na panya. Pia asiokote kuni za mti uitwao munyatomaa na kukokea moto. Mufwimi alitoroka usiku kwa kuogopa kuuawa na Mwamududa ambaye kumbe alipopata taarifa za ujauzito wa binti yake, alifurahi sana kwa kujua kuwa sasa angeolewa kirahisi. Mufwimi hakuwarudia tena wale wafuasi wake bali aliendelea kuwinda hadi huko Itamba, Usungwa alikouawa na nyati.
Wafuasi wake walipomtafuta, walipata taarifa za kuuawa kwake huko Itamba, lakini pia walipewa taarifa ambazo Mufwimi aliwasimulia wakazi wa huko juu ya binti wa Mwamududa aliyemwacha na ujauzito wake.
Waliamua kwenda huko kwa kujifichaficha, lakini walipodhihirika, walikaribishwa vizuri na kupewa makazi na mtawala Mwamududa aliyefurahi kupata mjukuu. Huyu Mwamuyinga mtoto wa Mufwimi, chotara wa Kimanga aliyekuwa jasiri tangu ujanani, alimrithi babu yake na kuanza kutawala sehemu hiyo ya Ng’uluhe akiwa ‘Mutwa’ wa kwanza wa kabila lililotoka nje ya Tanganyika.
Ni kutokea kwa huyu Muyinga wa kwanza ndipo ulifuatia mfululizo wa vizazi kupitia kwa watoto waliozaliwa, ambapo Maliga alimzaa Mudegela aliyemzaa Kilonge aliyemzaa Ngawona Lupembe aliyeuawa na mdogo wake Munyigumba, ambaye alianza kuitanua himaya ya Uhehe baada ya kushika utawala mnamo mwaka 1870.
Huyu aliwashinda kivita wababe wa Kinitole na kuyaunganisha makabila ya Iringa, watu waliokuja kuitwa Wahehe na wakoloni hapo baadaye kutokana na mlio wao wa kivita wanapotupa mikuki kwa kusema he he he! wakiashiria hatari.
Kutoka Mutwa huyu ndipo alifuatia kutawala Mukwavinyika, mtoto wa pili wa Munyigumba, ambaye jina lake mtawala huyu liliwashinda wakoloni kulitamka na hivyo kufupisha kwa kutamka Mkwawa.
Mkwavinyika alianza kutawala akiwa na miaka 19 na aliyapiga vita makabila yote yaliyozunguka himaya yake na kuwashinda watu kama kina Chabuluma, Mtwa wa Wangoni na Merere, shemeji wa Mtwa wa Wasangu. Mukwavinyika alipigana pia na wakoloni wa Kijerumani.
Msomaji, simulizi hizi za Wahehe ni ndefu sana na zenye mambo mengi mno, ikiwemo kujipa majina ya kujitapa kulikofanywa kwa idhini ya Mutwa baada ya kutenda matendo makuu, ushujaa wa kutupa mikuki, uwezo wa mbio za kufukuza maadui, dawa za ushindi wa vita nakadhalika. Kwa sasa hapa panatosha kumalizia simulizi hizi za Wahehe.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Good governance

This article does not cite any references or sources. (November 2007)Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed.

The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Hereby, public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.
Good governance defines an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal. Major donors and international financial institutions, like the IMF or World Bank, are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken.
Good governance can be understood as a set of 8 major characteristics:
participation,
rule of law,
transparency,
responsiveness,
consensus orientation,
equity and inclusiveness,
effectiveness and efficiency
accountability.
These characteristics assure that
corruption is minimized,
the views of minorities are taken into account and
that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making
Participation
Participation by both men and women.
Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives.
Participation also means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially.
Full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities.
It also means independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations.
Information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement.
Responsiveness
Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus orientation
Need of mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved.
It also requires a long-term perspective for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development.
Equity and inclusiveness
Ensuring that all members of society feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream.
This requires all groups, and especially the most vulnerable to have opportunities to maintain or improve their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal.
It also means sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Governmental institutions as well as the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.
In general organizations and institutions are accountable to those who will be affected by decisions or actions.
A basic practical example of good governance would be where a member of a committee, with a vested interest in a topic being discussed at committee, would absent themselves from the discussion and not attempt to exert influence. See also Ethics in Public Office and Due Diligence.
WHAT IS GOOD GOVERNANCE?
Recently the terms "governance" and "good governance" are being increasingly used in development literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms that ensure "good governance" are undertaken.
This article tries to explain, as simply as possible, what "governance" and "good governance" means.
GOVERNANCE
The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put "governance" means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political parties, the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. Figure 1 provides the interconnections between actors involved in urban governance. At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc. may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process.
All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the "civil society." In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level.
Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as "kitchen cabinets" or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the "land Mafia" may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision-making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices.
Figure 1: Urban actors
GOOD GOVERNANCE
Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
Figure 2: Characteristics of good governance
Participation
Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.
Responsiveness
Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus oriented
There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.
Equity and inclusiveness
A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.
Good governance
What is good governance?
Governance is the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. read more>>
Good governance at the national level
There is a wealth of UN human rights standards of direct relevance and applicability to questions of good governance. read more>>
Good governance at the international level
In a globalizing world, national and international governance are inextricably linked. International institutions of governance will be in a better position to respond to the needs of the developing world once national institutions meet the test of good governance.read more>>
OHCHR and good governance
As mandated by the General Assembly, OHCHR is the UN’s system-wide focal point for human rights, democracy and the rule of law. Under the Secretary-General’s reform programme launched in 1997, OHCHR has also been charged with facilitating the mainstreaming of human rights in United Nations development programming. read more>>
Assistance for good governance
In 2000, policy measures, core elements and areas of programmatic collaboration for the United Nations system were established.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Good governance

This article does not cite any references or sources. (November 2007)Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed.

The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Hereby, public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law.
Good governance defines an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal. Major donors and international financial institutions, like the IMF or World Bank, are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken.
Good governance can be understood as a set of 8 major characteristics:
participation,
rule of law,
transparency,
responsiveness,
consensus orientation,
equity and inclusiveness,
effectiveness and efficiency
accountability.
These characteristics assure that
corruption is minimized,
the views of minorities are taken into account and
that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making
Participation
Participation by both men and women.
Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives.
Participation also means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially.
Full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities.
It also means independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations.
Information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement.
Responsiveness
Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus orientation
Need of mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved.
It also requires a long-term perspective for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development.
Equity and inclusiveness
Ensuring that all members of society feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream.
This requires all groups, and especially the most vulnerable to have opportunities to maintain or improve their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal.
It also means sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Governmental institutions as well as the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.
In general organizations and institutions are accountable to those who will be affected by decisions or actions.
A basic practical example of good governance would be where a member of a committee, with a vested interest in a topic being discussed at committee, would absent themselves from the discussion and not attempt to exert influence. See also Ethics in Public Office and Due Diligence.
WHAT IS GOOD GOVERNANCE?
Recently the terms "governance" and "good governance" are being increasingly used in development literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms that ensure "good governance" are undertaken.
This article tries to explain, as simply as possible, what "governance" and "good governance" means.
GOVERNANCE
The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put "governance" means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision.
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political parties, the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. Figure 1 provides the interconnections between actors involved in urban governance. At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc. may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process.
All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the "civil society." In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level.
Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as "kitchen cabinets" or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the "land Mafia" may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision-making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices.
Figure 1: Urban actors
GOOD GOVERNANCE
Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
Figure 2: Characteristics of good governance
Participation
Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency
Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.
Responsiveness
Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Consensus oriented
There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.
Equity and inclusiveness
A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.
Good governance
What is good governance?
Governance is the process whereby public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights. Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law. read more>>
Good governance at the national level
There is a wealth of UN human rights standards of direct relevance and applicability to questions of good governance. read more>>
Good governance at the international level
In a globalizing world, national and international governance are inextricably linked. International institutions of governance will be in a better position to respond to the needs of the developing world once national institutions meet the test of good governance.read more>>
OHCHR and good governance
As mandated by the General Assembly, OHCHR is the UN’s system-wide focal point for human rights, democracy and the rule of law. Under the Secretary-General’s reform programme launched in 1997, OHCHR has also been charged with facilitating the mainstreaming of human rights in United Nations development programming. read more>>
Assistance for good governance
In 2000, policy measures, core elements and areas of programmatic collaboration for the United Nations system were established.

Monday, June 16, 2008

COUNTRY, STATE AND NATION

Country, State, and Nation
Definining an Independent Country
While the terms country, state, and nation are often used interchangeably, there is a difference.
A State (note the capital "S") is a self-governing political entity. The term State can be used interchangeably with country.
A nation, however, is a tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture. A nation-state is a nation which has the same borders as a State.
States and Independent Countries
Let's start with what defines a State or an independent country. An independent State:
· Has space or territory which has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK).
· Has people who live there on an ongoing basis.
· Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money.
· Has the power of social engineering, such as education.
· Has a transportation system for moving goods and people.
· Has a government which provides public services and police power.
· Has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the country's territory.
· Has external recognition. A country has been "voted into the club" by other countries.
There are currently 195 independent countries or States around the world. Territories of countries or individual parts of a country are not countries in their own right.
Examples of entities that are not countries include: Hong Kong, Bermuda, Greenland, Puerto Rico, and most notably the constituent parts of the United Kingdom. (Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England are not countries.)
A "state" (with a lower-case "s") is usually a division of a federal State (such as the states of the United States of America).
Nations and Nation-States
Nations are culturally homogeneous groups of people, larger than a single tribe or community, which share a common language, institutions, religion, and historical experience.
When a nation of people have a State or country of their own, it is called a nation-state. Places like France, Egypt, Germany, Japan, and New Zealand are excellent examples of nation-states. There are some States which have two nations, such as Canada and Belgium. Even with its multicultural society, the United States is also referred to as a nation-state because of the shared American "culture."
There are nations without States. For example, the Kurds are stateless people.

CIVICS FOR FORM II

CHAPTER ONE
LIFE SKILLS
Life skills are mental knowledge and ability which enable humans to manage and control themselves.
Life skills enable humans to act, think and behave in an acceptable way within their community.
Examples of life skills are negotiation skills, relation skills, self-awareness skills and decision making skills.
The study of life skills inculcates into people the knowledge and skills that enable them to cope with the day-to-day social, political, economic and cultural affairs of the society.
In general, life skills enable people and society to act properly and overcome problems in order to improve the standard of living of the whole society in which the individuals live.
Promotion of Life Skills
Promotion of life skills means the deliberate effort and activities geared at encouraging and cultivating values, knowledge and ability to perceive something among people.
Problem Solving Techniques
What is a problem?
A problem is an unwelcome or harmful matter that has to be dealt with and overcome.
What is a technique?
A technique is a way of carrying out a particular task.
What is a problem solving technique?
A problem solving technique is a way of dealing with and overcoming an unwelcome or harmful matter.
In day-to-day activities, people get many problems. These problems may be brought about by the interaction among members of the society, natural hazards, socio-economic situations or cultural contradictions.
As problems arise, people employ different ways of solving these problems. The ways employed depend on the nature of the problem.
Many different problem solving techniques are available. The techniques are listed below.
The co-operative problem solving technique: in this technique, the person with a problem exposes the problem to other people so that they can contribute different ideas which lead to solution of the problem.
The guidance and counseling problem solving technique: in this technique, a person with the problem is given advice so that he/she can cope with the existing problem. Through guidance and counseling, a person with the problem is directed to use proper ways to solve or live with the reality. Examples of people who need guidance and counseling most are the youth and HIV/AIDS victims.
The working hard problem solving technique: in this technique, people with a problem work hard in order to eradicate the existing problem. This technique is the best for problems such as lack of food, shelter or clothing. By working hard such problems may be overcome. Working hard should be both mental and physical.
Seeking-advice-to-individual-person problem solving technique: in this technique, a person with a problem seeks an advice from an individual person. This may be done through paying a visit to a person from whom the advice is to be sought. This is done in the light that experience and creativity are important and different people have different experiences and skills of solving problem. For example, a student who has a problem on what subjects to take may seek advice from his/her teacher because teachers have the ability to identify students according to ability and interest in different subjects. One important thing to remember in this technique is that the person with the problem should be careful not to go to a wrong person.
Reading-more-books-on-the-problem problem solving technique: in this technique a person with a particular problem finds and reads books which discuss ways of solving the problem.
Using-scientific-method problem solving technique: in this technique a person with the problem visits an expert who can solve the problem. This technique is frequently used when the problem needs a person who is specialized in the field that concerns the specific problem. For example, when one is suffering from malaria, he/she is supposed to visit a doctor. The doctor is more likely to solve the problem because he/she is specialized in the field of treating people with such problems. Also, a person with a criminal case visits a lawyer because it is more likely that the lawyer will give helpful advice as he/she is specialized in the field of law.
Problem Solving Process
When we are encountered with problems we do not feel comfortable. Always people would like to live without problems. But it is natural that problems are part and parcel of our lives. A wise person never runs away from problems but resorts to solving them. In order for a problem to be solved effectively, there are steps to be followed. The steps are:
●Initiating mediation
●Gathering information
●Defining the problem
●Generating alternatives
●Agreeing in solution
Initiating mediation
This step tries to identify the problem. For example, if two persons are fighting, there must a reason for their fighting. In order to identify the reason for the fighting, one initiates mediation. In this process, one must ask the individuals who
had been fighting the reason that made them fight. In this way, the problem solver finds out the source of the problem. Gathering information
The second step in problem solving is collecting data. Here the problem solver seeks to get more information on the sources of it. If we again take an example of the fighting persons, in this step the problem solver would like to get evidence. In this way, many people would be involved; the eye witnesses and other persons who know something about the problem. Gathering information enlightens the problem solver.
Ways of gathering information:.
-Observation:
In observation the person who intends to solve the problem gets information through seeing, hearing or testing. Observation does not depend on information from someone else. In this way the person who wants to solve the problem depends on personal intuition.
-Questionnaire:
A questionnaire is a set of questions written to be answered by a certain intended group of people. In this way the person who wants to solve the problem gathers information by making a set of questions which are given to people for them to answer. The people who are given the questions ought to answer the questions accordingly.
-Interview:
An interview is a face to face interaction between the person who gathers information and the person from whom information is expected to come. This is an oral questioning in which the interviewer asks questions and the interviewee gives answers and the answers are written by the interviewer. The answers given by the interviewee are used as information in solving problems.
-Reading books:
A person who wants to solve the problem reads books from which he/she expects to get information about the problem. After reading, the information obtained is used to solve the problem.
-Mass media
In this way, the problem solver listens to radio, watches TV and reads newspapers to get the information important to the solution of the problem.
-Scientific experiment.
Information of some problems is mostly obtained through scientific experiments. In this way, the problem solver performs some scientific experiments to get information about the problem. The information so obtained is used to solve the problem. For example, doctors these days are doing experiments to obtain information about the virus that causes AIDS. The information they get is used to synthesize drugs that help people with HIV to live longer.
Defining the problem
After gathering information, the problem solver elaborates the problem by presenting or stating something about the problem. Here, the problem solver generalizes and states the cause of the problem. For example, if the problem was the spread of malaria, the general information could be ‘malaria is caused by mosquitoes of which presence is influenced by tall grass, dirty environment and water’.
Generating alternatives
Here the problem solver suggests ways of eradicating the problem. From the information obtained in the previous step, the problem solver takes into account all the causes of the problem and from this account he/she suggests ways of stopping the problem. Taking the example of the problem of malaria cited previously, the problem solver could say ‘to stop the spread of malaria, people have to cut grass short, use mosquito nets and clean their environments’.
The alternatives generated should depend on the nature of the problem. Not all problems are solved by the same alternatives.
Agreeing in solution
Agreeing in solution here means being together in combating the problem by using the alternatives generated. For example, if all people cut grass short, use mosquito nets and clean their environment, it is likely that malaria gets eradicated very fast. But if there is disagreement in the operation, the problem is likely to last longer. Sometimes it is necessary to make a follow up to enforce implementation.
NB: For effective problem solving, the steps listed above must be followed faithfully otherwise the solution is never reached.
Importance of Effective Problem Solving
There are many advantages of effective problem solving.
Effective problem solving can generate peace and harmony, e.g., political problems in Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Effective problem solving may enhance socio-economic development.
Effective problem solving can prevent the recurrence of the problem.



CHAPTER TWO
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
What is a government?
A government is the people and groups within a society with the authority to make, carry out and enforce laws and to resolve disputes within that society.
People in the government have the following duties:
-Making laws
-Carrying out laws
-Enforcing laws
-Resolving disputes.
Types of governments
Categorization of governments is mostly based on the way of acquiring power. Some governments come to power through elections while others come to power by force. On this bases two types of governments exist.
●Democratic governments
●Non-democratic governments
Democratic governments
A democratic government is the government that derives its power and authority from the people. A democratic government is obtained through a system agreed by all and enshrined in the national constitution.
For a government to be democratic, it must:
-Get its power from the people through fair and free elections
-Be based on the ‘rule of law’.
-Be based on the principle of separation of power; a system checks and balances.
-Honour the ‘Bills of Rights.
-Be based on the sovereignty of the people.
-Be based on the will of the majority and respect minority rights.
Advantages of democratic governments
Democratic governments have the following advantages:
*Involvement of the people. Democratic governments involve the people in the running of the government. The majority make decisions while being mindful of the minority.
*Honour of the Bill of Rights. Democratic governments guarantee the rule of law. This means that in democratic governments all people are equal before the law. Leaders and ordinary citizens are all treated equally before the law. No one is above the law.
*Holding competitive elections. As it has been said already, democratic governments come to power through the consent of the people. This is done through fair, free and regular elections.
*Guarantee of basic freedoms. Democratic governments guarantee basic freedoms to the people. Paramount among these are the freedom of the press and the freedom of expression.
NB: Democratic governments are important because they create an environment in which development can take place.
Non-democratic governments
Non-democratic governments come to power without the consent of the people. Most of them come to power through ‘coup d’etats’ or through ‘vote rigging’.
Disadvantages of non-democratic governments
●In non-democratic governments, there is no involvement of the people in decision making.
●Non-democratic governments do not guarantee the ‘Bills of Rights’ to their citizens.
●In non-democratic governments the basic freedoms are suppressed. This leads to frequent violation of human rights.



Differences between democratic and non-democratic governments

Democratic governments
Non-democratic governments
This form of government is formed through democratic elections; fair and free elections
This form of government is formed through undemocratic means; power is obtained through elections that are not free and fair, coup d’etats, etc.
In this form of government, there is freedom of association, speech, worship, etc
In this form of government, there is no or limited freedom of association, speech worship, etc.
In this form of government, there is rule of speech
In this form of government, there is no rule of law
In this form of government, power and authority of the state are divided among the three organs of the government; the Executive, parliament and the Judiciary
In this form of government, power and authority are concentrated on the hands of a single or few persons
In democratic governments, the constitution includes the Bill of human Rights
The constitutions of non-democratic governments do not include the Bill of Human Rights
A democratic government is there to listen and respond to the people also to deliver social services to them
A non-democratic government is there to serve the interests of a single or few persons

Dominant forms of governments in the world
The forms of governments are divided on the basis of the way power is distributed among the government organs, decision making is done, and the government comes to power.
Taking into consideration of this, there are many forms of governments in the world. Some of them are listed and described below.
1. Monarchy Governments

In this form of government, the king or queen is the head of state and the position is hereditary. Monarchy governments are divided into two; constitutional monarchies and absolute monarchies.
-Constitutional monarchies
In constitutional monarchies the king or queen is just a ceremonial leader; he/she has no executive power. The government is led by the prime minister. Therefore, the power of the king or queen is bound by a set of rules.
Examples of constitutional monarchies are Britain, Japan and Netherlands.

-Absolute monarchies
In absolute monarchies, the king or queen exercises state power. Examples are Saudi Arabia and the former Louis kings of France.
2. Republic Governments
In this form of government, the president is the leader of government and he/she is elected by the people. The president exercises power on behalf of the people. An example of a republic is the United Republic of Tanzania.
3. Federal Governments
In this form of government, the central government shares power with a number of small local governments. This government is formed when two or more states join. The states have their own governments but there is a central government which unites all states. Examples of Federal governments are the United States (USA) and India.

4. Union Governments

This is the government that results when two or more nations join and each nation surrenders its power to the Unitary government. Tanzania is an example of the country with a Unitary government.

5. Totalitarian Governments
In this form of government, there is only one political party and people are forced to do what the government tells them to do. Sometimes people are prevented from leaving the country. Examples are the governments of Hitler and Mussollini.
6. Communist Governments
This is the form of government in which the economy of the country is controlled by the central government. Business and farms are owned by the government. Healthcare, education and welfare are provided by the government. This form of government mostly results from an election or revolution.
An example of this form of government is the government of the former USSR.
7. Anarchy Governments (No government)
This is a situation in which there is no government. Anarchists believe that a government is a bad thing. They believe that governments stop people from organizing their own lives. This situation may arise due to civil war.
8. Revolutionary Governments
This is a form of government that results when the existing government is completely overthrown and a new government is formed. The newly formed government is a revolutionary government. The government of Zanzibar is an example of a revolutionary government.
9. Transitional governments
This is a form of government that is formed to govern for a certain period of time while waiting for a general election. An example of this form of government is the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo before the general election.
Importance of Governments
The importance of a government is obvious as we all know that absence of governments lead to many problems. A government has the following functions.
© The government maintains peace, security and order.
© The government is responsible for the provision of social services
© The government protects Human Rights
© The government is responsible for raising funds that are used to provide social services.
© The government is responsible for the creation and enforcement of laws.

THE GOVERNMENT OF TANZANIA

The central Government of Tanzania



















THE GOVERNMENT OF TANZANIA
THE PARLIAMENT
THE JUDICIARY
THE EXECUTIVE















THE THREE ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF TANZANIA

The central government of Tanzania is responsible for taking care of the whole country.
The central government of Tanzania has three organs as illustrated in the diagram above.
The three organs are:
●The Executive
●The parliament
●The Judiciary
The Executive
To execute means ‘to carry out or put into effect a plan, order, etc,.
The Executive of the government of Tanzania is the branch of government that has the responsibility of running the day-to-day activities of the country. It carries out plans and orders.
Structure of the Executive
The Executive consists of the following:
© -The president
© -The Vice President
© -The Prime Minister
© -The ministers
© -The permanent secretaries of the ministries (on behalf of the civil servants)
The cabinet consists of:
-The Vice president
-The prime minister
-The president of Zanzibar
-The ministers
The president is not a member of the cabinet but chairs the cabinet meetings. The cabinet is the chief advisor to the president.
Functions of the Executive
The Executive represents the state and exercises leadership in the formulation of policy
The Executive appoints designated executive and judicial officers of the government
The Executive implements the decisions of the other branches of government and thus translates into action the policies formulated.
The Executive provides services needed by the people
The president of the United Republic of Tanzania has is the head of state and the head of the Executive component of the government.
The Union president is vested wit the following powers:
v To declare any emergency
v To declare war
v To detain any person for the sake of the country’s security and social order
v To order the deportation of a Tanzanian citizen or non-citizen for the sake of the country’s security and social order.
v To order the suspension of any publication from within and outside the country
v To punish people collectively
v To make international treaties in the name of Tanzania.
v To appoint people in positions of responsibility including members of the permanent commission of inquiry, the chief Justice and judges and members of the Electoral Commission
v To confer mercy to the convicted people
The parliament
The word parliament comes from the word ‘parlement’. The word parlement is old French which means ‘speaking’. This means that the parliament is there to speak on behalf of the people.
The parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania is the legislative organ of the government. It is called the legislature as its main function is to enact laws.
The parliament consists of the following:
ü The president
ü Members of parliament
Members of parliament make up the National Assembly. The president is not part of the National Assembly because he/she is not a member of parliament. This means that the president is part of the parliament but he/she is not an M.P. it is why he/she never participates in discussion when the National Assembly is in session. The prime minister represents the government business in the parliament.
Members of parliament are of the following four categories:
v Members elected to represent constituencies-one from each constituency
v Women members being not less than fifteen percent of the total elected members in a general election on the basis of proportional representation.
v Five members elected by the House of Representatives from Zanzibar
v 10 members appointed by the president
Leadership of the parliament.
The following are the leaders of the parliament:
-Speaker of the parliament – the head of the legislative branch
-Deputy speaker
-Clerk of the parliament
-Two chair persons
NB: The speaker may be chosen from among the M.Ps or not from among the M.Ps. If he/she is not chosen from among the M.Ps, he/she must have the qualifications of an M.P.
Functions of the Parliament:
ü The parliament makes the laws of the country
ü The parliament approves the budget of the government
ü The parliament authorizes any long or short term plans intended to be implemented in the United Republic of Tanzania
ü The parliament ratifies agreements or treaties to which the government is part
ü The parliament oversees and advises the government and its organs
ü The parliament trains future leaders
The overall work of the parliament is to represent the voters in the parliament.
The Judiciary
The Judiciary is the organ or branch of government that is entitled with the work of dispensing justice.
The Judiciary is made up of the Court of Appeal, the High Court, and the lower courts subordinate to the high Court.
The court is collectively manned by a personnel working in the legal system and the courts.
Officials in the legal system include the court clerks, magistrates, judges, state attorneys, advocates and court assessors.
The Judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice.
Functions of the Judiciary.
The Judiciary has a number of functions among them being:
-To provide justice
-To ensure compliance with the law
-To settle disputes among people
-To protect the rights of citizens
-To resolve constitutional disputes
Structure of the Judiciary
The Judiciary has levels from the grassroots to higher levels.
●The ward Tribunal (village or ward level)
This is formed by elected wise men and women of a village or ward to judicate on minor infractions of the law.
It has a chairperson and a secretary. The members are elected and therefore may know nothing about law.
Tribunals are used because there are too few primary courts.
●Primary Court (ward level)
This is the lowest court. The head at this level is called primary Court magistrate. The primary court magistrates are not lawyers. This is because they do not possess a university degree in law. For this reason, advocates are not allowed to defend the accused in primary courts.
●District magistrate’s court
This is the second level of the court system. It is headed by a law degree holder. At this level advocates can defend the accused.
●Resident magistrate’s Court
This is the third level of the judicial system. Magistrates serving at this level are law degree holders and have much experience as they are promoted after serving the district courts.
●The High Court
This is the fourth level of the judicial system. This level is served by judges. This level of the judicial system has the power to hear all types of cases including murder, felony and high treason.
●The Court of Appeal
The Court of Appeal is the highest level of the judicial system. The Court of appeal hears cases forwarded to it by the High Court. The head of the court of appeal is the chief justice.
Court hierarchy in Tanzania

Other Courts
There are other special courts that deal with special cases and are not included in the hierarchy above.
These are:
The special constitutional court
The court system of Zanzibar
The commercial court
The Industrial court
The city court
The housing Tribunal
The Chief Justice
The chief Justice is the head of the judicial system of the United Republic of Tanzania. He/she is appointed by the president of the United republic of Tanzania.
NB: The special constitutional court is not a permanent court; it only meets when there is a conflicting interpretation of the constitution between the two sides of the Union.

The function of the central government is the sum total of the functions of the Executive, the Parliament and the Judiciary.
Local government
Local government is a local authority that has some power over a small political and administrative area of the country.
In Tanzania, local government is created at different levels. The levels are as follows:
-The village government
-The ward government
-The district council
-The town council
-The municipal council
-The city council
Functions of the local government
A local government has many functions as it is the one that is closer to the people. The functions of a local government fall under two categories; the permissive functions and the mandatory functions.
Mandatory functions
Mandatory functions of a local government are those functions which a local government performs as a directive from the central government. Examples of mandatory functions are;
-Maintenance of law and order
-Promotion of social and economic welfare of the residents of the area
-Furtherance of social and economic development in accordance with the national policies and plans.
- Collection and proper utilization of revenue
-Making of by-laws for the implementation of national and local policies
-Consideration, regulation and co-ordination of development plans, projects and programs
Permissive functions of a local government are those functions which a local government may perform depending on need and availability of resources. Such functions include:
-Control or prescription of methods of husbandry or agricultural land
-Building, equipping and letting of shops and dwelling houses
-Establishment and maintenance of drainage systems
-Building and maintaining health centres and primary schools
-Charging fees for services and licenses.
Source of local government revenue
Local governments need funds to run the day to day activities of serving the people.
Development levies
Fines and licenses
Subvention from central government
Special contribution from donors
Duties
People participation in local government
The aim of establishing local government was to enhance people’s participation in the development process. People of an area can participate in the development process in many different ways. Some of the ways people can use to bring their development through their local government are:
Debating and discussing issues of importance in the community and local government
Working in the community in support of a particular cause
Forming or joining community or grassroots’ organizations which have various goals such as improving the community, preserving the environment, protecting human rights and improving heath
Attending political and community meetings
Becoming leaders of a community organization or political party
Paying required taxes, licenses and duties
Being a productive member in the community
Monitoring and criticizing local government activities

In democratic governments, people work with their government as partners in bringing development. If people do not participate actively in their local government, they might turn into subjects. The advantages of people’s participation are:
ü Participation ensures that the local government leaders do not abuse their powers
ü Participation keeps the local government informed of the wishes of the people
ü Participation involves the people in the governing of the country
ü Participation makes the local government make decisions that reflect the needs of the people
Public service
What is public service?
Public service is a government sector that gives services to the public or people. Examples of public service are hospitals, schools, revenue authorities, police and courts.
What is abuse of power?
Abuse of power is the use of power in such a way as to gain personal benefit at the expense of the public benefit.
An example of abuse of power is corruption. Another example is when a police official uses excessive power to stop people in a demonstration.
Abuse of power can be checked by the government in co-operation with the citizens. Many ways can be used to check abuse of power some of which are:
1. Accountability and transparency
Accountability means the government official have to be answerable for their actions. Transparency means openness on what is going on in the government and society.
2. Separation of power
Separation of power means power and authority should be divided among the three branches of government. Authority and power should not be concentrated in the hands of a single person or few individuals.
3. Publicity
Publicity means free flow of information. Information should be accessible through the media. This enables the media to inform the people of abuse of power by officials.
4. Fair procedures
5. Public protector
There should be public protector’s office. The main function of the public protector is to hear people’s complaints about government officials.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE

Local Government Revenue: - This is an income, which is raised by the local authority to pay for expenses like building markets and salaries.

The sources of local government revenue are:

Licenses sold by councils.
Rents – it charges people who rent in the houses, which belong to the local government.
Government grants
Development levy collected from the male adults
Loans

UNION AND NON-UNION MATTERS IN TANZANIA

What are union matters in Tanzania?
Union matters are affairs, which are, governed by the union government between Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar.

Mention the list of union matters
ANS. The list of union is found on chapter 10 of the Republic. Those matters are:

Constitution of Tanzania and the government of the united republic.
Foreign matters – Which are matters between Tanzania and outside countries for example appointment of ambassador.
Defense and Security – there is only one army in Tanzania.
Police
Citizenship – all peoples born on 26/04/1964 or after that period are citizens of Tanzania.
Immigration
External borrowing and trade.
Services in the government of the united republic.
Income tax paid by individual and corporations.
Harbors, Matters, which relate to air transport, posts and telecommunications.
Coins and currency like notes.
Industrial licensing in the united republic.
Higher education like universities.
Mineral oil and natural gas.
The national examination council sets exams for mainland and Zanzibar
Air transport for civilians.
Research on matters of the union.
Forecast of weather.
Statistics such as census.
The court of appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania.
Registration of political parties and all matters relating to political matters.
What are non-union matters?

Non-union matters are affairs which are governed by the revolutionary government of Zanzibar without cooperation from the union government.

The lists of non-union matters:

1. Health sector
2. Judiciary – for Zanzibar
3. Primary education, Secondary and Technical education.
4. Agriculture
5. Communication roads construction.
6. Tourism and all matters, which are not the list of union matters.

ABUSE OF POWER IN PUBLIC SERVICES

Definition of concepts:

(a) Public services are services which are given to the people by the government through the public affairs who are appointed by the president and civil servants who are workers of the government. Examples of public affairs are:
Ministers, Regional Commissioners, District commissioners, Local Authorities Directors, Councilors while civil servants are workers like teachers, doctors, nurses, engineers, Accountants and Managers.

(b) Abuse of power – is the misuse of powers, which might be done by public and civil servants in the process of working for the government or giving services to the citizens. Example of abuse of powers could be:
- Using government money for their interest.
- Asking to be given bribes so as to offer services to the citizens.

Ways which can be used in the prevention of abuse of powers are:

- Public servants should be self disciplined, honest and truthfulness.
- The people should report such acts to the authorities because the abuse of power makes them buy their rights to be served by the government officials.

The government organs, which are used to prevent the abuse of powers, are
(Look the charts below)



NAME OF THE ORGAN
METHODS USED TO PREVENT ABUSE OF POWERS IN PUBLIC SERVICE
1. Executive/President
- Orders corrupt officials to be dismissed from their job.
- Demote the workers who become corrupt and abuse their powers.
2. Legislature/Parliament
- Passes the law to fight corruption
- Members of parliament require the government to fight against corruption.
3. Judiciary
- Sentences of officials breaking the laws on the delivery of services to public.
4. Commission for human right and good
Governance
- Inquires into actions which violet human rights.
- Report Officials who corrupt.
5. PCB (Prevention of Corruption Bureau)
- To arrest corrupt officials and take them to court.
- To investigate and take necessary steps to prevent corruption in government offices.

What is grafting?
It is corrupt action of getting money by misusing ones position as a public servant. E.g. stealing, making fraud and asking for money from citizens.
What is Patronage?
This is a practice where by a person that holds a public post gives a job or position to those who are politically faithfully to his political interests.
CHAPTER THREE
DEMOCRACY
Definition of democracy.
Democracy is a political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish. The word democracy comes from two Greek words: demos,” the people"; kratein, "to rule". In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by representatives elected by popular suffrage.
So democracy is the rule of the people where by they have to participate in the governing of their country directly or through elected representatives.

- Another definition – was given by Abraham Lincoln, a president of USA from 1861 – 1865. He defined democracy as a government of the people and by the people and for the people
What are the two types of the democracy?
The two types of democracy are: -

a) Direct Democracy – it is democracy in which all citizens discuss the problems of their society and came to solution as a whole group. Direct democracy was working in small societies such as Greece.
b) Indirect or Representative Democracy – it is democracy in which people participate in the governing of their country through elected representatives or Member of Parliament.
What are the features (Elements) of democracy?
The features of democracy are: -

a) Rule of law can be explained from three points of views.

- One of those points of views is that – Rule of law is a situation whereby the law to govern should be bound the government.
- Secondly, every citizen in the country must be treated equally before the law.
- Thirdly – the court system must be independent in making decisions.
b) Bill of Rights/Human Rights – Must be respected by the government and should be written in the constitution. Examples of such rights are;

- Right to own property
- Right to vote
- Freedom of peaceful assembly
- Freedom of religion.
c) Multiparty democracy – A country must be having many political parties so that people can be allowed to participate in the governing of their countries through political parties, which check the government on power.

d) Separation of powers – Is the principal, which means that the powers of three organs such as the executive, legislature and Judiciary must be separated and independent of each other. The executive should govern and enforce law. Judiciary interprets the law and legislature makes the law without interfering activities of either organs.
Pillars of democracy are:
In addition to the features of democracy, they include: -
- Government by consent of the people – People have to accept before the government takes actions.
- Sovereignty of the people – means powers and authority of the government comes from the people.
- Majority rule – Means the views and decisions of many people have to rule while considering the minority views.
The weaknesses of indirect or representative democracy are: -

- Representatives may use their position to defend their own interest
- Representatives become a privileged group in the government more that other citizens do.
- Few people (Representatives) make decisions for many people.
- Narrows a chance for many citizens to participate directly in the governing.

MULTIPARTY SYSTEM IN TANZANIA
What is the meaning of the following concept?

a) Multipartism (Multiparty System) – is a system of having more than two legal political parties in the country. E.g. Tanzania has multiparty system.
b) Two party system – Is a system of having two powerful political parties e.g. U.S. – has Democratic Party and Republican; Britain has Conservative and Labor Party.
c) Single Party System - (Monopartism) is a system of having only one political party.
d) Political party – Is an Organization formed by a group of people who share common interests and goals of acquiring government control or state power.
When did multiparty democracy begin in Tanzania?
Multiparty democracy began during the time before independence.
Political parties were formed to struggle for independence. They include:
TANU – Tanganyika African Union – 1954
UTP – United Tanganyika Party – 1956
AMNUT – All Muslim National Union of Tanganyika – 1959
ANC – African National Congress – 1958
In Zanzibar there were political parties such as:
ZPPP – Zanzibar and Pemba People’s Party – 1959
ZNP – Zanzibar nationalist Party – 1955
ASP – Afro Shiraz Party – 1957
UMMA party – 1963
The reasons which made Tanzania and Zanzibar ban multiparty democracy and introduce single party system in 1965 were:

a) Single party system under TANU in Tanzania mainland and ASP in Zanzibar would bring unity among the people.
b) Single party system supported Socialism and self-reliance in Tanzania
c) Single party system avoided imperialist agents.
Multi party democracy began again on 1st July 1992 because of the following reasons: -

a) People did not like single or one political party as it did not provide a chance for the growth of democracy. So, they needed multiparty democracy.
b) The developed countries like U.S.A. and Britain required the government to start multiparty democracy.
c) IMF and World Bank demanded the government to start multiparty democracy so as to give money in terms of loans.
The function of the Nyalali commission which was appointed by the President in 1990 was:-

- To move around the country to collect opinions from the citizens on whether they liked multiparty or single party democracy.
- Judge Francis Nyalali led this commission. The commission reported that 80% of the people liked single party democracy while 20% wonted multiparty democracy.
Political parties began immediately after the introduction of multiparty democracy in Tanzania are:
i) C.C.M – Chama cha Mapinduzi.
ii) CHADEMA – Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo.
iii) CUF – Civic united front.
iv) NCCR – Mageuzi – National Convention for Construction and Reform.
v) NLD - National league for Democracy.
vi) NRA - National Reconstruction Alliance.
vii) PONA-Popular National Party already banned by the government.
viii) TADEA - Tanzania Democracy Alliance.
ix) TLP - Tanzania Labour Party.
x) UDP-United Democratic Party.
xi) UMD - Union Peoples Democracy.
xii) UPDP - United Peoples Democratic Party.
xiii) TPP - Tanzania Peoples Party.
xiv) DP - Democratic Party.
xv) FORD-
xvi) DEMOKRASIA MAKINI.
Conditions which guide politics under multiparty democracy in Tanzania are:
i) The government must register political parties.
ii) Political parties should not intend to rule the country on the basis of religious belief racism and tribalism.
iii) Political parties should not break the Union.
iv) They should not use force to be on power.
v) They should be having at least 200 members who qualify to voters in ten regions of the United Republic out of which at least 2 regions should be in Zanzibar.
vi) Political parties, which existed before 5-2-1977, cannot be revived.
Advantages and disadvantage of multiparty democracy are:
(a)Advantages:

Multiparty promotes democracy and human right e.g. right to freedom of association
The government becomes responsible because of criticism from opposition parties.
Brings competition during election.
It keeps the ruling party alert
(b) Disadvantages:
People get divided on the basic of political inclinations.
Conflicts occur between political parties.
CONSTITUTION.
What is the meaning of a “constitution”?
- Constitution is a body of basic laws and principles by which a nation is governed.
- Tanzania has the constitution called Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977.
Important of the constitution in the country are:
- It spells out the rights of citizens in the Bill of rights e.g. right to equality.
- It shows the functions and power of the president.
- It shows the composition and function of three organ of the government such as the Executive, Legislature and judiciary.
- It expresses the means through which the leaders like members of parliament and president can be chosen.
Types of constitution are two. They include:
1. Written constitution - means the laws and principles written e.g. Tanzania’s constitution.
2. Unwritten Constitution - it is not written and exists in Britain.
- A country with unwritten constitution is governed through national conventions and parliamentary decisions.
Advantages of a Written Constitution are:

People can read it whenever they are doubt.
Brings disagreements in interpretation.
Disadvantages of a written constitution are:
Has got two much worlds and details.
Brings disagreements in interpretation.

Advantages of Unwritten Constitution are
It is very flexible and
Can adapt to changing situations.

Disadvantages of Unwritten Constitution are:
It is not visible (not seen).
It is not written.

Ways for making a democratic constitution are:
1. National constitutional conference – it to have to be attended by many people from the groups of people in the country such as workers, student, women and lawyers. Members discuss and show what they like to be in their constitution.
2. Constituent assembly-is the constitution making body. It has to be formed after the national constitutional conference and its work is to draft the constitution. Its members must come from the national conference.
3. Referendum-is the popular vote over the national issue. A constitution drafted by the Constituent Assembly should be taken to the referendum so that people can agree through their votes.
Pillars in the constitution of Tanzania are things or main provisions shown in the constitution. They are shown in 10 chapters of the constitution. They include:
1. The United republic of Tanzania as a multiparty state-chapter 1.
2. The Executive of united republic-chapter 2.
3. The legislature and its function-chapter 3.
4. The Revolutionary government of Zanzibar-chapter 4.
5. The high Court of the united republic.
6. The Commission for Human Right and Good Governance-chapter 6.
7. The finances of the United Republic and the way they should allocated- chapter 7.
8. Local government authorities-chapter 8
9. Armed Forces Police Prisons and National Services-chapter 9
10. Miscellaneous provisions, which show procedures to be followed by officials, would like to resign from offices established by the constitution.

Constitutional Amendment is the changes done to the constitution.

The Constitutional amendment in Tanzania can be shows as follows

(a) The Independence Constitution of 1961-regarded the queen to be the head of state.
(b) The Republic Constitution-1962-which stopped the queen to be the head of the state
Instead the president to be elected by the people had to become head of the state.
(c) The Union Constitution which was made after union between Tanganyika and
Zanzibar on 26-4-1964 that constitution was produced in 1965 and it was called
Interim Constitution because it had to govern the United Republic for a temporary
period.
(d) The Permanent Constitution of Tanzania of 1977. This constitution replaced the
Interim constitution and several amendments have been done to that constitution as
shown to below:
- 1984-the president had to govern for 2 five years term.
- In 1992 multiparty democracy began.
- In 1994 president of Zanzibar stopped to be Vice –president in the United Republic of Tanzania
Which organ can amend the constitution in Tanzania?
ANS The organ that can amend the constitution is the PARLIAMENT which normally amends it by 2/3 majority votes.
ELECTION.
Definition of the term Election
Is an act whereby citizens vote for their public leaders such as president members of parliament and local councilors through the casting of ballots.
The importance of an election in the country is:
- Gives the opportunity to the citizens to choose their leaders and political parties they want.
- Election is a peaceful way for who win to know that the people want them to be their leaders.
- Election is a peaceful way of transferring authority from one government to the next.
- Election reminds the leaders to be answerable to those people who vote for them to be in office
List down the types of election in Tanzania.
(1) General Election ; Is an election, which happens after 5 years and it, takes place all over the country General elections can also be sub divided as:
- LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION –is an election where by people choose local councilors to represent their ward to the District Municipal or Town Councils
- PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION –is an election in which people votes for the president to be the head of the state.
- PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION –election where by people vote for the members of parliament

- BY-ELECTION –Is an election which takes place in a constituency so as enable the people vote for the Member of Parliament, or local councilor to replace the one who passed away or resigned from the office
This election can be conducted in Tanzania after 2 years since the leaders got the office.
What are election conditions in Tanzania?
Election conditions are necessary rules which must be observed by the voters and the candidates during election.
Mention the conditions to be observed for one to be a candidate.
- He/ she must be a citizen of the United Republic of Tanzania.
- He/ she must be 18 years of age and above to participate in voting must have sound mind.
- He/she must not be under death sentence or under the sentence which exceeds 6 months.
- He/She must register so as to vote in only one constituency.
Mention the conditions to be observed by the candidates

- For presidential candidates he/she must be 40 of age and above, for parliamentary Candidates must be 21 years of age and above.
- Candidates must be members of political parties and nominated by them.
- Candidates must know to read English and Kiswahili.
- They must not have been imprisoned due to dishonest or guilt because of going contrary to the leadership code within 5 years before general elections.

What is the meaning of ‘free and fair elections’?
Free Elections – means that people should be free to vote and contest for the posts without being forced by the government or any group of people.
Fair Elections – means the elections should be admistered without favoring any political party, the voters should not be discriminated because of their race, religion or disability. Voters should get a chance to choose candidates secretly and the candidates should also get chance to organize public meetings and express their agendas and what they will do for the voters when they win elections.
Who is a candidate?
Is a person who contests for the post of president, members of parliament and local government during the elections.
Functions of the national electoral Commission “(NEC)” during elections are:

- To register the voters
- To locate polling stations
- To count the votes
- Declare or announce the results
What is a polling station?
A polling station is a place where people go to vote for their leaders.
CHAPTER FOUR
GENDER
Introduction.
The relationship between men and women in different socio-cultural groups has always been constrained by aspects of inequality between the two sexes. Cultural beliefs and policies have always worked against women. Gender portrays the relation between men and women.
Definition of terms
-Gender is the role and behaviuor played by males and females as a result of social expectations.
-Gender equity is the principle of fair and even treatment which leads to gender equality.
-Gender equality is the application of the same standards of status, rights, respect and opportunities irrespective of sex.
-Women empowerment is the rational process by which women mobilize to understand, identify and overcome gender discrimination to achieve gender equality in the society.
Factors contributing to gender oppression, discrimination and stereotyping.
-Gender oppression is the keeping of one sex under subjection and hardship.
-Gender discrimination is the use of unjust distinction in the treatment of people basing on sex.
-Stereotyping is the image or idea that has been fixed toward one sex and may be wrong.
The factors that contribute to gender oppression, discrimination and stereotyping are:
1. Culture
Tribal attitudes, norms, values and customs in general operate to against women. For example, songs, poems and sayings usually praise men as heroes but reflect a bad picture of women. Women are portrayed as lazy prostitutes and untrustworthy people.
Due to the unfavourable socio-cultural pressure, women grow to believe that they are inferior and subordinate to men.
2. Unequal gender division of labour

Women get the most burden of unpaid labour. Mostly, women are confined to unpaid domestic labour. A large number of women work at home and their labour is unpaid labour. At the end, their contribution goes unrecognized and hence they are not rewarded.
3. Natural heritage.
In the case of the ownership of the natural resources and heritage, women are marginalized. This practice causes gender imbalance.
4. Recreation
From childhood, recreational activities are divided on the basis of sex. This leads to discrimination in games and sports.
Effects of gender oppression, discrimination and stereotyping.
There are many effects that result from oppression, discrimination and stereotyping. Some of them are:
-Poor performance especially for girls
-Inferiority complex
-Poverty
How can we empower women?
We can empower women by reducing their unpaid workload, improving their health, improving their education opportunities, and giving them more chance in decision making.
QUESTION
What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, properties, and interactions of matter.

QUESTION

Why do we study chemistry?
We study chemistry because:
(i) Through studying chemistry, we get knowledge that enables us to solve and answer many questions that arise during our living. Chemistry helps us to answer questions like how heat is generated from burning petrol and why milk turns sour when left for some time.
(ii) Through studying chemistry, different individuals acquire different professions. For example, teachers, doctors and nurses study chemistry during their training.
(iii) The study of chemistry enables us to manufacture such items like fertilizers, paints, ink, drugs, insecticides, herbicides and dry cells all of which are used in our daily activities.
(iv) Chemistry brings pleasure to one studying it. For example, if one experimenting discovers something special, he/she feels very happy.
(v) The knowledge of chemistry is applied in other science subjects, for example biology and physics.
(vi) Chemistry enables us abandon bad beliefs like visiting witchdoctors when we are sick believing that our neighbours have bewitched us.
(vii) Chemistry enables us to take what is abundant and change it into another substance that can be used as a substitute for what is in short supply.
QUESTION
What is science?
Science is the knowledge obtained and tested through the use of a systematic method. The knowledge obtained through this systematic method is used to design many different things that a human being can use. The application of science in designing things that human beings use to solve their problems in their crude environment is called technology. Therefore, chemistry is a branch of science. Other branches of science are biology and physics. Being a science subject, chemistry is purely experimental and hence relies on practical work. In order to be good at chemistry, one has to study other science subjects as well.
QUESTION
What is technology?
Technology is the process by which human beings fashion tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment. The term is derived from the Greek words tekhnç, which refers to an art or craft, and logia, meaning an area of study; thus, technology means, literally, the study, or science, of crafting.

QUESTION
Name the main branches of chemistry.
The main branches of chemistry are:
(i) Organic chemistry
(ii) Inorganic chemistry
(iii) Physical chemistry
QUESTION
What is Organic chemistry?
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry in which carbon compounds and their reactions are studied. A wide variety of classes of substances—such as drugs, vitamins, plastics, natural and synthetic fibres, as well as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—consist of organic molecules. Organic chemists determine the structures of organic molecules, study their various reactions, and develop procedures for the synthesis of organic compounds
QUESTION
What is Inorganic chemistry?
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, and reactions of the chemical elements and their compounds. Inorganic chemistry does not include the investigation of hydrocarbons—compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen that are the parent material of all other organic compounds. The study of organic compounds is called organic chemistry.
Inorganic chemists have made significant advances in understanding the minute particles that compose our world. These particles, called atoms, make up the elements, which are the building blocks of all the compounds and substances in the world around us.
QUESTION
What is physical chemistry?
Physical chemistry is a field of chemistry that applies the laws of physics to elucidate the properties of chemical substances and clarify the characteristics of chemical phenomena. The term physical chemistry is usually applied to the study of the physical properties of substances, such as vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, density, and crystallography, as well as to the study of the classical aspects of the behaviour of chemical systems, such as thermal properties, equilibria, rates of reactions, mechanisms of reactions, and ionization phenomena.
QUESTION
What is the scientific method?
Scientific Method is the term denoting the principles that guide scientific research and experimentation.
QUESTION
What is the procedure of the scientific method; or how do we study chemistry?
We study chemistry by going through the following scientific method:
1. Identification of the problem.
A problem is an issue which needs an appropriate solution to overcome it.
E.g., the child is not happy all the time.
2. Formulation of a hypothesis
This is the formation of a tentative answer to the problem. The researcher gives a tentative answer which s/he thinks is the causative of the problem.
E.g., the child may be sick.
3. Collection of Data (Experimentation)
The third step is collecting data or information. Here the researcher seeks to get more information on the sources of the problem. In this step, the researcher would like to get evidence. In this way, many people would be involved; the eye witnesses and other persons who know something about the problem. Gathering information enlightens the researcher.
The researcher has to know where the data can be collected, the methods of collecting data and the sample to be taken.
4. Analyzing data
The researcher has to analyze data by calculating the mean, mode, median and standard deviation where possible.
5. Interpretation of Data
The data should be interpreted in a precise and concise manner to enable the reader to understand their implication. This can be done by presenting the data in graphs and charts.
6. Conclusion
Here, the researcher relates the hypothesis formulated and the data obtained after the research. After relating and evaluating, the researcher gives the conclusion.
QUESTION
What are physical properties of a substance?
Physical properties of a substance are properties which do not change the chemical character of the substance. Pounding, pulling, or heating, for example, do not change the chemical character of a substance. Pounded copper remains copper.
QUESTION
What are chemical properties of a substance?
Chemical properties are those properties characteristic of the substance when it is involved in a chemical change.
QUESTION
What is a physical change?
A physical change is a change which does not involve rearrangement of atoms in the substance or substances.
QUESTION
What is a chemical change?
A chemical change is a change of a substance in which one or more new substances with new chemical properties are formed.

QUESTION
What is a chemistry laboratory?

A chemistry laboratory is a special room or place where chemistry experiments are performed.
The word laboratory originates from the Latin word ‘laborare’ and it means to work hard. This means that a laboratory is a place in which people work seriously. It means that we should not make jokes in the laboratory.
QUESTION
What is the importance of a laboratory?
A chemistry laboratory is a special room or place where chemistry experiments are performed.
The word laboratory originates from the Latin word ‘laborare’ and it means to work hard. This means that a laboratory is a special place or room in which people work seriously. It means that the laboratory is not a place to make jokes.
QUESTION
Name the laboratory rules.
One of the first things a scientist learns is that working in the laboratory can be an exciting experience. But the laboratory can also be quite dangerous if proper safety rules are not followed at all times.
In the laboratory everyone is expected to adhere to rules that are laid down and this reduces the risk of accidents. The rules are as follows:
Ø Never enter the laboratory without permission from your teacher
Ø Wear a laboratory apron whenever you are working with chemicals
Ø Never perform experiments without being permitted by your teacher
Ø Never handle any equipment unless you have specific permission
Ø Never spill any chemicals in the laboratory
Ø Never eat and drink in the laboratory
Ø Never run in the laboratory
Ø Do not make noise in the laboratory
Ø Do not look directly at the apparatus being heated
Ø Read all directions for an experiment before performing an experiment
Ø When heating a test tube or bottle, point it away from yourself and others
Ø Maintain a clean work area and keep all materials away from flames
Ø Be aware of the location of the first aid kit
Ø Never smell or taste chemicals without permission
Ø Never mix chemicals for the ‘fun of it’.
Ø When diluting acids, pour acids into water and never vice versa
Ø Never use broken or chipped glassware
Ø Clean your hands thoroughly after handling chemicals
QUESTION
Where can we find chemistry laboratories?
A chemistry laboratory is found in places such as:
v Hospitals
v Schools
v Industries
QUESTION
Why is chemistry called the central science?
Chemistry is often called the central science, because its interests lie between those of physics (which focuses on single substances) and biology (which focuses on complicated life processes). A living organism is a complex chemical factory in which precisely regulated chemical reactions occur between thousands of substances. Increased understanding of the chemical behaviuor of these substances has led to new ways to treat disease and has even made it possible to change the genetic makeup of an organism. For example, chemists have produced strains of food plants that are hardier than the parent strain.
Because the field of chemistry covers such a broad range of topics, chemists usually specialize. Thus, chemistry is divided into a number of branches.
QUESTION
Name different methods by which mixtures can be separated:
Different methods by which mixtures can be separated are: filtration, evaporation, distillation, fractional distillation, separating funnel, recrystallization, chromatography, magnetism and sublimation.
QUESTION
Define the methods given above and give one example of a mixture that can be separated by the method.
Filtration is a process of separating a suspended solid, such as a precipitate, from the liquid in which it is already suspended by straining it through a porous medium (filter) that can be penetrated easily by liquids. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is sand and water.
Evaporation is a process of obtaining a soluble solid from its solvent. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is salt and water.
Distillation is the process of evaporating a liquid and condensing its vapour. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is alcohol and water.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its components through differences in boiling points. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is ethanol and propanol (two miscible liquids).
Separating funnel method is a method used to separate two liquids with different densities. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is oil and water (two immiscible liquids).
Recrystallization is a method of separating a soluble solid from its impurities. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is impure copper sulphate.
Chromatography is a method used to separate mixtures by taking an advantage of their different rates of movement in a solvent over an absorbent material. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is ink.
Magnetism is a method of separating a magnetic material from a non-magnetic material. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is a mixture of iron filings and sulphur.
Sublimation is a method of separating a mixture that contains a substance which sublimes. An example of a mixture that can be separated by this method is a mixture of iodine and sand (iodine sublimes).
QUESTION
What is distillation?
Distillation is the process of heating a liquid until its more volatile constituents pass into the vapour phase, and then cooling the vapour to recover such constituents in liquid form by condensation.
QUESTION
What is evaporation?
Evaporation is the gradual change of a liquid into a gas without boiling.
QUESTION
What is condensation?
Condensation is the process of reduction of matter into a denser form, as in the liquefaction of vapour or steam.
QUESTION
What is the difference between distillation and evaporation?
In evaporation and in drying, the purpose usually is to obtain the less volatile constituent; the more volatile constituent is discarded.
In distillation, on the other hand, the principal object of the operation is to obtain the more volatile constituent in pure form.
The removal of water from glycerine by vaporizing the water, for example, is called evaporation, but the removal of water from alcohol by vaporizing the alcohol is called distillation, although similar apparatus is used in both cases.
What are the differences between mixtures and compounds?
The difference between a mixture and a compound are as listed in the table below:


Mixtures
Compounds
1
The constituents can be separated from one another by physical methods, e.g. magnetic separation, filtration and distillation
The constituent elements cannot be separated by physical methods. Only chemical means can be used to separate them, e.g. chemical reactions
2
In the preparation of a mixture, there is neither chemical reaction nor change in energy
In the process of the formation of a compound, there must be a chemical reaction and change of energy occurs. The energy may be absorbed (endothermic reaction) or given out (exothermic reaction)
3
Mixtures may vary widely in composition
Compounds are fixed in their composition
4
The components retain their properties.
The constituent elements of a compound lose all chemical properties. Properties of the compound are quite different from those of the constituent elements

QUESTION